2. The care of the elderly is primarily a task entrusted to the family.
3. true or false The United States has the lowest infant mortality rate in the world
4. is it true or false that The media have always been an instrument of the state as well as a tool for social change.
5. Under certain conditions, the Federal Communication Commission allows a single company to own every media outlet in a single market.
6. The nature of health can be defined by its social rather than biological context.
7. What led to the increase in leisure time in the twentieth century?
a. Changes in values and norms made leisure seem more desirable.
b. increases in industrial productivity and time-saving technologies
c. decreases in family size
e. increases in life span and better health care
8. Revolutionary social change is often the result of technological developments.
9. The tragedy of the commons is a kind of social dilemma in which:
a. science needs to come up with better technical solutions to environmental problems.
b. individually rational behavior leads to collective disaster.
c. individuals must be convinced to contribute to a collective resource that they may or may not benefit from.
d. fortunately most people are not motivated by self-interest.
e. the more critical the situation becomes, the more likely people are to cooperate with one another.
10. The spread of material and nonmaterial culture to new cultural groups, even when there is no migration of people, is called:
b. cultural leveling.
c. cultural lag.
d. cultural diffusion.
e. culture shock.
11. Which of the following people would be most likely to join a social movement?
a. a young woman who attends college and is involved in campus government and volunteers for local and state political campaigns
b. a disaffected loner, taking lots of math classes, but without a real social life or a good outlet to make friends or form romantic relationships
c. a young man from the lower class who gets a job in a campus cafeteria and notices how well off the students he serves are
d. an average student who spends a lot of time smoking marijuana and switches majors several times
e. a single mother who works nights as a stocker at a grocery store and has relatives both in the deep south and on the west coast
12. How does the U.S. Census Bureau define “family”?
a. two or more individuals related by blood, marriage, or adoption who share a household
b. a social group bound to one another through legal, biological, or emotional ties
c. people who are emotionally and/or materially interdependent
d. people who share a household
e. parents living with minor children
13. Death and illness in a population is bad for productivity of the system and is a destabilizing force. Which theory takes this approach to medicine?
a. sick role
c. structural functionalism
d. symbolic interactionism
14. Which of the following is NOT considered to be protected speech?
a. information about bombs and weapons
b. hateful language directed at racial and ethnic minorities
c. pictures taken of celebrities on public property
d. information about the personal lives of political candidates
e. material considered to be obscene
15. If an urban neighborhood were to suddenly develop an assortment of upscale restaurants, coffee shops, hip boutiques, and art galleries, then the neighborhood is:
a. becoming gentrified.
b. growing into an edge city.
c. reacting to the rural rebound.
d. changing patterns of pollution and resource use.
e. experiencing smart growth.
16. Whereas the top causes of death in the United States are ________________, those in the developing world are continually affected by the threat of _______________.
a. acute; curative
b. preventive; crisis
c. preventive; chronic
d. chronic; acute
e. crisis; acute
17. Jorge has learned that he has a mental illness. Since then, he has begun to act according to the illness, in ways that he thinks others expect someone with a mental illness to act. Which theory of health and illness best explains his situation?
c. symbolic interactionism
d. sick role
e. doctor–patient confidentiality
18. How does Robert Bellah believe that style enclaves are different from “real communities”?
a. They tend to remain focused on shared interests rather than on the larger community.
b. They usually lead to more altruistic behaviors and an interest in others.
c. They have greater community spirit.
d. They tend to be integrated into a larger social group.
e. all of the above
19. How do rates of domestic abuse differ across racial groups?
a. They are lower among Asian Americans than in other racial groups.
b. They are about equal across racial groups.
c. They are higher among non-English-speaking individuals than among English speakers.
d. They are lower among immigrants from Southeast Asia than in other groups.
e. They are higher among African Americans and Hispanics than in other racial groups.
20. Activities that are recreation today were necessities in the past.
21. Real environmental justice would mean that poor communities would not have to choose between economic development and a healthy environment.
22. C. Wright Mills used the term “the sociological imagination” to refer to important interconnections between personal troubles and public issues. What would he have said about deprivation amplification?
a. It didn’t really apply to a sociological imagination.
b. Both public issues and personal troubles contribute to poor health and so work needs to be done at both levels to more properly address disease rates.
c. Neither public issues nor personal troubles contribute to poor health and so work done at these levels would not address disease rates any differently.
d. Personal troubles cause poor health and so work needs to be done to more properly address disease rates.
e. Public issues cause poor health and so work needs to be done to more properly address disease rates.
23. According to conflict theory, how does the nuclear family facilitate exploitation?
a. by making geographic mobility possible
b. by employing members of other social groups to do its dirty work
c. by exploiting the working class, whose products it consumes
d. through the use of nannies and domestic workers
e. through a sexual division of labor within the home
24. All successful social movements are eventually incorporated into institutions.
25. Which of the following is a basic demographic variable?
e. sustainable development
26. Which of the following sounds most like recreation, as your textbook defines it?
a. a magician who puts up flyers and works at children’s birthday parties
b. a guitarist on tour who has to sell t-shirts and CDs at the merchandise table after each show
c. a student’s time between getting out of class and going to work
d. the “recess” period given to children in primary school, when they can spend unstructured time on the playground
e. someone learning the calculus required to compute the amount and type of fuel needed to power a model rocket that he wants to launch in a par
27. Paolo broke a finger playing soccer. He was seen by a medical practitioner very soon after the accident. His ailment would be classified as a chronic illness.
28. The United States is the only industrialized nation without some nationalized health care.
29. According to relative deprivation theory, why do people join social movements?
a. They are ordered to do so by the government.
b. Social movements are good places to meet people and network.
c. They are filling a psychological need to belong to something.
d. Joining a social movement is a rational response to inequality or oppression.
e. Social movements are a necessary part of a system of social stratification.
30. Because many media companies are now global, the content that they produce reflects a wide range of Western and nonwestern values.
31. In Lincoln, Nebraska, in the summer of 2009, two groups held rallies about health care, one supporting and one opposing legislation proposed to overhaul America’s health care system. At one point, the two groups went beyond holding signs and shouting slogans and tempers flared. Objects were thrown, shoving matches broke out, and the police had to step in to break up the:
a. social movement.
32. As an agent of socialization, who does the family influence?
a. only children
d. the elderly
e. none of the above
33. How do people with an anthropocentric relationship with the environment perceive nature?
a. as something to be preserved
b. as the ultimate source of meaning
c. as something to be studied and examined before it is tainted by human activity
d. as a place to find spiritual truth
e. as something to be conquered
34. More recently, epidemiologists are studying the role of temperature increases in the spread of diseases globally. Specifically they have found that increases in temperature can also increase pathogen-carrying agents called:
a. infectious agents.
d. ecosystem deterrents.
e. vector organisms.
35. A woman who recently moved from New York to North Carolina had a year of probation left from a fraud conviction, but was told that North Carolina would not supervise her probation because she was guilty of “lewd and lascivious association.” Specifically she lived with her boyfriend. She later said that, when she moved to North Carolina, it was the first time she had heard of:
b. intentional communities.
d. noncustodial parents.
e. symbolic interactionism.
36. In the early 1900s, what percentage of Americans lived in cities?
a. 10 percent
b. 99 percent
c. 6 percent
d. 40 percent
e. 90 percent
37. If the vast majority of people in the cities and towns of Riverside County, California, were to commute to work in Los Angeles, these communities would be edge cities.
38. The movement that attempts to rebuild group values and a sense of collective responsibility is called:
e. textual poaching.
39. The increasing number of Americans who move out of state to attend college will decrease the importance of ____________, assuming that students start new romantic relationships in school.
40. The documentary “Unnatural Causes” explores the lives of several Louisville, Kentucky residents at different socio-economic status levels and from various racial backgrounds. It found that poorer Louisville residents suffered greater rates of illness and died earlier than wealthier ones. What is this an example of?
b. deprivation amplification
c. food deserts
d. impression management
e. environmental racism
41. In the past, which group of people had the time and resources necessary to pursue recreational activity?
a. the middle class and the upper class
b. only the wealthy
c. only the clergy
d. almost everyone
e. only the very poor
42. Propinquity refers to:
a. the appeal of the family.
b. geographical proximity.
c. the desire for the exotic and the foreign.
d. a fixed set of beliefs.
e. the tendency to seek people with similar backgrounds.
43. The “bureaucratization” stage of a social movement:
a. in the U.S. labor movement, happened when the AFL and the CIO merged.
b. always happens at the beginning.
c. happened during the gay rights movement with the Stonewall riot.
d. happened for the environmental rights movement with the release of the film An Inconvenient Truth
e. has not yet happened for the gay rights movement.
44. Leisure and work are complementary activities. What links them together?
a. the weekend
c. children and the family
45. According to Georg Simmel, how do city dwellers relate to one another?
a. by constantly monitoring one another in order to detect violations of norms and values
b. through restrictive constraints on personal behavior
c. in terms of class-based loyalties
d. through family connections
e. in objective and instrumental terms
46. Hunger remains widespread in many parts of the world, but not in the United States.
47. The Mall of America has more than 10,000 workers, occupies more than 4 million square feet, and receives more than 40 million visitors each year. However, the mall offers more than just shopping. Concerts, plays, story times for children, flight simulators, and an indoor aquarium are just a few of the elements of what the mall calls its “retail experience.” What point does this illustrate?
a. Alternative media sources are driving Americans to consider new ideas and experience life differently.
b. Rather than paying for things, more and more Americans are now making their own fun.
c. Shopping is now as much about entertainment as it is about purchasing things.
d. Many forms of leisure and recreation seem to have shifted from organized and formal activities to spontaneous or informal activities.
e. Americans are increasingly less likely to go out for a dose of the arts and more likely to stay home and enjoy performances in front of their home entertainment centers.
48. The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco is an icon of the city by the bay and a world renowned tourist destination. It is also the number one suicide magnet in the world. Which theoretical explanation for suicide would best explain the high rates of suicide at the bridge?
49. What sport is immensely popular in almost every part of the world EXCEPT the United States?
a. track and field
50. Media are one of the United States’ most profitable exports.
51. The 2010 Health Care Reform Act (formally called the “Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act”) represents:
a. the medical establishment.
b. the importance of medical systems in the United States.
c. a sweeping overhaul of the U.S. health care system.
d. patients’ power and status.
e. doctor–patient confidentiality.
52. How would a sociologist define “family”?
a. two or more individuals related by blood, marriage, or adoption who share a household
b. both the nuclear family and the extended family to the extent that family members share emotional and material responsibilities
c. almost any social group so long as they share responsibilities for raising children
d. an interdependent social group bound by legal, biological, or emotional ties
e. a group of related people who share a household
53. A sociologist who examines how cities are organized or the migration of human populations is studying:
a. social ecology.
b. environmental attitudes.
c. renewable resources.
d. environmental justice.
e. grassroots environmentalism.
54. The transformation of culture over time is called:
a. social iteration.
b. social revolution.
c. cultural evolution.
d. social change.
e. cultural translation.
55. The Industrial Revolution made cities necessary, as a large number of people had to be brought in to work in factories, but ever since then many people have found city life attractive. Why?
a. Cities offer a profound sense of security.
b. Cities bring people together and help to develop community.
c. Cities offer a high degree of personal freedom.
d. Cities help people develop deep and intense relationships.
e. all of the above
56. Health and illness are mostly physical states that do not include other life aspects such as mental well-being or changing cultural beliefs.
57. In countries where ____________ has happened, there no longer is a “natural increase” in population.
a. the Industrial Revolution
b. human exemptionalism
c. the demographic freefall
d. extreme water pollution
e. the demographic transition
58. Family friends who are referred to as “Aunt” or “Uncle” are examples of:
a. the Full House effect.
b. fictive kin.
d. extended families.
59. Some cell phone providers are now offering hardware, like small laptops, and media to play on it, like songs and TV shows. Phone companies believe that each product they offer will encourage and promote other products, as phones can easily send data to laptops, which can store media that can easily be watched on phones, and so on. What is this called?
b. the hypodermic needle theory
d. media concentration
60. A typical media conglomerate might include which of the following?
a. a book and magazine publisher
b. radio and television broadcasters
c. a sports franchise
d. none of the above
e. all of the above
61. How has technology enabled the shift from spontaneous to organized recreation?
a. It has made organized recreation more fun.
b. It has made it easier to organize people.
c. It has made organized recreation more competitive.
d. It has produced the tools necessary for organized recreation.
e. It has made shopping easier.
62. Is medicine in the United States a social institution?
a. Yes, because organizations like the American Medical Association set policy and shape definitions of health and illness throughout the nation.
b. Yes, because doctors need licenses to practice.
c. No, because it is more of an ideal than a social institution.
d. No, because organizations like the American Medical Association are brick and mortar places and not really widescale patterns of interaction.
e. Yes, because a study was done that polled Americans which reported that it is.
63. When a large number of people either collectively or individually engage in similar behaviors, sociologists call it:
a. collective behavior.
c. mass behavior.
d. a social movement.
64. Although the hacky sack was invented in 1972, it exploded in popularity in the middle of the 1990s and is now somewhat less common. This is a good example of a:
a. social movement.
b. cultural diffusion.
e. social dilemma.
Figure 13.1 The Concentration of Media Outlets
According to Figure 13.1, Google corporation has acquired a very large number of otherwise unrelated businesses in a variety of different sectors. For example, it is the owner of the largest wind farm on Earth. This process of acquiring businesses is called:
e. fourth estate.
Talcott Parsons researched this from a structural functionalist perspective:
a. the medical establishment
b. medical policy
c. doctors’ power and status
d. doctor–patient confidentiality
e. the sick role
67. What do demographers call larger urban areas, those with more than one million inhabitants?
a. global cities
c. Metropolitan Statistical Areas
d. global density centers
68. What do the 19th Amendment to the Constitution, Nazism, birth control, and Protestantism all have in common?
a. They all involve social stratification.
b. They all began in the twentieth century.
c. They all have had a negative effect on society.
d. They all are the products of a single charismatic leader.
e. They all are the products of social movements.
69. The modern era is characterized by improvised or do-it-yourself forms of family.
70. When a Star Trek fan club raises money for an animal welfare organization that is sponsored by the Star Trek actor William Shatner, what is this evidence of?
a. the inability of such groups to contribute to the common good
b. the fragmented nature of such groups
c. the narrow focus of a lifestyle enclave
d. the lack of real community in such groups
e. the ability of a lifestyle enclave to develop a larger sense of social responsibility
71. Although the family always influences its members, it is not always a very consistent influence because:
a. changes outside the family impact its members.
b. inequality between siblings changes the way that each child is socialized.
c. birth order changes the family experience.
d. divorce and remarriage can radically alter the way a family socializes its members at different points in time.
e. all of the above
72. Epidemiologists are studying global climate change and disease and have found a link between temperature increases and the spread of diseases.
73. Although critics might see soap operas as brainwashing their viewers to accept a particular version of gender roles, some sociologists would insist that the people who produce soap operas actually have to be constantly attentive to the desires of their audience and are to some extent responding to their audience. If you believe this, then you probably see soap opera viewers as:
a. the bourgeoisie.
b. an active audience.
c. helpless dupes.
e. new voices in the media.
74. What do sociologists call the tendency to marry someone of a similar background?
c. in-group orientation
e. romance medians
75. Seagram’s, a company best known for its gin, also owns Universal Records. This is an example of what trend in the media industry?
76. Regressive or reactionary social movements are always:
a. the most common type of social movement.
b. motivated by prejudice or hate.
c. successful only when they use violence.
d. working to make sure things stay the same, or even to turn them back to an earlier point in history.
e. motivated by a desire to protect the environment.
77. How does the birth of children change the gendered division of labor within the household?
a. It makes the gendered division of labor more traditional.
b. It has no influence on the gendered division of labor.
c. It gets fathers more involved.
d. It makes the gendered division of labor more traditional in families that were always somewhat traditional, but it has no effect on those who had a more progressive division of labor.
e. It brings the extended family into the household more.
78. Popular urban legends sometimes circulate for years.
79. An office has a “coffee fund,” an old coffee can where people can toss change anytime they pour a cup of coffee. The fund can be used to buy new coffee for the office when the supply runs out. However, one individual always takes coffee and never puts any money in the fund, making him a:
b. free rider.
d. resource mobilizer.
80 Which of the following would NOT be a family as sociologists define the term?
a. a married couple who maintain separate apartments on different sides of Central Park in New York City
b. a lesbian couple who have a child using a sperm donor
c. a couple who remarries and shares a household with children from their previous marriages
d. an unmarried couple who never have children
e. two men who enter a business partnership in which one runs a retail outlet while the other produces products to sell in it
81. When an individual describes someone who is related to them biologically as “not really kin,” what are they saying?
a. The relative has not exercised her rights or fulfilled her obligations as a family member.
b. The relative is part of the extended, rather than the nuclear family.
c. The relative doesn’t belong to the relevant voluntary associations.
d. The relative has died.
e. all of the above
82. What feature of fan-staged encounters can be problematic?
a. how powerless a fan is in such circumstances
b. the brief and inadequate nature of the contact
c. the amount of money that they cost
d. they usually occur without the consent of the celebrity
e. all of the above