A study that tells us whether two variables are associated, but does not tell us if one variable causes or influences the other, is a(n):

Unit 1 Examination

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Considering the research findings described in the textbook, only one of the following is a true statement. Which one is true?

a. Repeating something over and over is usually the most effective way to learn it. b. Girls have a noticeable advantage over boys on verbal tasks. c. Students often study differently for different kinds of classroom assessments. d. For optimal performance, students should never feel the least bit anxious in the classroom.

2. Which one of the following is the best example of elaboration?

a. Logan copies a friend’s answers to last night’s homework assignment. b. Rosie repeats the spelling of each word several times the night before her spelling test. c. Melissa makes up stories to help her remember the various species she studies in biology. d. Sharon automatically knows how to study effectively for an upcoming history test.

3. Which one of the following is the best example of qualitative research?

a. comparing average achievement test scores for students at three different schools b. looking at school attendance records to identify potential school dropouts c. interviewing middle school students about cliques at their school d. finding out how long it takes 6-year-olds to assemble challenging picture puzzles

4. A study that tells us whether two variables are associated, but does not tell us if one variable causes or influences the other, is a(n):

a. experimental study with one or more control groups. b. experimental study without a control group. c. correlational study. d. descriptive study.

5. Experimental research requires which one of the following?

a. manipulating an aspect of the environment b. studying behavior in an actual classroom environment c. being able to predict two or more variables d. describing every variable in the study in considerable detail

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6. A research study finds that students who weigh more do better in school. Which one of the following is an appropriate deduction from this information?

a. On average, students who eat more do better in school. b. Parents should feed their children as much as possible. c. There is a correlation between weight and classroom performance. d. The school cafeteria should decrease the fat content of the food it serves.

7. Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn only from an experimental study?

a. Boys are more likely to show aggressive behavior than girls. b. Drugs administered during childbirth affect a child’s early development. c. Children grow taller as they get older. d. Children’s muscular coordination improves as they grow older.

8. Mr. Jacobs wants to find out whether a new program for teaching physical education promotes students’ physical development. He gives his students a number of tests before they begin the program (pretests) and the same tests again after they have been in the program for eight months (post tests). He finds that the students’ post test scores are higher than their pretest scores and so concludes that the program is effective. What is definitely wrong with Mr. Jacobs’ conclusion?

a. Tests are not a good measure of physical development. b. There are other possible explanations for his results. c. Eight months is too short a time for such a program to have a long-term effect. d. The post tests should always be different from the pretests.

9. Most developmental theorists agree that:

a. physical development occurs in a predictable sequence, but cognitive development does not. b. developmental milestones appear in a consistent sequence for most children. c. development occurs at a smooth, constant rate throughout childhood and early adolescence; it begins to slow down in the high school years. d. cognitive development occurs in a predictable sequence, but physical development does not.

10. Which one of the following statements reflects what developmentalists mean by the term maturation?

a. developmental changes that are controlled largely by heredity b. changes that reflect increasingly appropriate social behavior c. changes related specifically to children’s emotional development d. changes related specifically to children’s physical development

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11. A sensitive period in development can best be described as a(n):

a. approach to teaching or parenting that takes a child’s developmental level into account b. stage of development in which children display unpredictable (and often inappropriate) emotional responses c. period during children’s cognitive development in which they are highly distractible and are frequently off-task in the classroom d. age range during which environmental conditions are most likely to have an effect on a particular aspect of a child’s development

12. Which one of the following best describes our current knowledge about the brain and learning?

a. We know that the brain reaches adult levels of maturity at puberty, enabling young adolescents to think and learn as effectively as adults do. b. We know that “left-brained” individuals are, on average, more effective learners than “right-brained” individuals. c. We know that learning is often associated with the formation of new synapses or the strengthening of existing ones. d. We know that the cortexes of rapid learners are about 20% larger than the cortexes of slow learners.

13. As children grow older, many of their neurons begin to transmit messages more rapidly than they did in the early years of life thanks to:

a. myelination. b. increasing dominance of one brain hemisphere over the other. c. synaptogenesis. d. greater variety of neurotransmitters.

14. According to the textbook, which one of the following conclusions is most warranted from research on brain development?

a. Classroom experiences can affect students’ cognitive development throughout the elementary and secondary school years. b. It is essential that children begin studying basic mathematics and science before the age of seven. c. Children probably won’t master the skills essential to success in the adult world unless they begin developing those skills in the early elementary grades. d. The ability to think abstractly depends on the development of many synaptic connections during the first five years of life.

15. Which one of the following reflects class inclusion as Piaget described it?

a. realizing that things that are cars can also be vehicles b. identifying a shape as a square one day but as a triangle the next c. understanding that some behaviors that are perfectly acceptable at home are unacceptable at school d. getting cows and horses confused

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

16. Five-year-old Becky is playing with blocks, stacking them one on top of another until her towers eventually tumble and then stacking them again. Which one of the following best reflects Piaget’s view of how Becky is probably learning in this situation?

a. She is absorbing information about how the environment behaves (e.g., “objects fall”) without consciously thinking about it. b. Because she is probably still in the sensorimotor stage, she will remember what she learns about the blocks only while the blocks are still in front of her. c. She is actively thinking about and interpreting the results of her actions. d. Because she builds one tower after another, she is obviously reinforced by watching her towers tumble down.

17. Which one of the following most accurately describes the general concept of temperament?

a. an inherited predisposition to interact with one’s environment in certain ways b. the extent to which people like or dislike themselves c. the extent to which people use or don’t use their inherited intellectual potential d. the ways that individuals have learned to react to environmental stimuli as a result of their past experiences

18. Which one of the following fifth graders most clearly shows signs of healthy attachment to one or more parents or other primary caregivers?

a. Miranda seems withdrawn and frightened much of the time. b. Jeffrey is self-confident and often likes to work independently. c. Shelly has no friends and behaves aggressively toward the other girls in her class. d. Mike seems unusually preoccupied with an attractive young actress who stars in a popular television show.

19. Other things being equal, which student is most likely to have come from a home in which his or her parents exhibit an authoritative parenting style?

a. Frank is well-behaved and self-confident. b. Margaret is impulsive and disobedient. c. Patrick is selfish and unmotivated. d. Rhoda is anxious and unhappy.

20. If we extend research findings regarding effective parenting styles to the classroom, teachers would be well advised to:

a. reward good behavior and ignore inappropriate behavior. b. establish fair rules and high expectations, and provide loving support. c. insist on strict obedience, with immediate punishment for infractions. d. allow students to make their own decisions regarding how they should and should not

Unit 1 Examination

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

behave in the classroom. 21. Three of the following suggestions are apt to be helpful when teachers work with students and their parents. With the textbook’s discussion of parenting styles in mind, choose the strategy that is apt to be counterproductive.

a. Keep in mind that many parents from Asian cultures effectively combine elements of authoritative and authoritarian parenting. b. Acknowledge that authoritarian methods may be quite appropriate if families live in dangerous neighborhoods. c. Point out that parents who use authoritarian methods may be causing some of their children’s behavior problems. d. Keep in mind that many children do well in school despite less-than-optimal parenting styles at home.

22. Which one of the following should you definitely do if you suspect that one of your students is the victim of abuse or neglect at home?

a. Temporarily lower your expectations for the student’s academic performance until conditions at home seem to improve. b. Spend some one-on-one time with the student in an effort to get him or her to confide in you. c. Keep a close eye on the student over the next few weeks, looking for additional evidence that either supports or disconfirms your suspicions. d. Immediately report your suspicions to a school administrator or social services.

23. Three of the following teachers are socializing their students in the way that schools typically do. Which teacher is not socializing students in a typical fashion?

a. Ms. Allen insists that her students complete their independent seatwork before they go to recess. b. Ms. Bernetti has her students go to lunch by rows, letting the quietest rows go first. c. Ms. Dobson suggests that Sean bang his fist against the wall a few times whenever he gets frustrated. d. Ms. Castanza does not permit her students to talk back to her in a disrespectful fashion.

24. Three of the following tend to be fairly stable personality traits that children have to varying degrees. Which one would psychologists not characterize as a relatively stable personality trait?

a. how dependable children are in doing their work carefully and following through on assigned tasks b. how outgoing and friendly children are with their peers c. how quickly children solve math problems d. how often children have negative emotions such as anger or depression

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

25. Given what we know about the development of sense of self, three of the following are likely scenarios. Which scenario is not likely to occur?

a. Mike vacillates between thinking of himself as being very smart and as being extremely stupid. b. Aaron thinks that kids his age don’t like him, so he spends most of his spare time with his parents. c. Daniel knows he has many friends, but he wishes he were a better student. d. Rex knows he’s good in math and science but thinks of himself as a total klutz when it comes to sports.

Unit 2 Examination

83

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Which one of the following is the most accurate statement about group differences among students?

a. When we have knowledge about typical group differences, we have a very good idea of how individual students are likely to perform in the classroom. b. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know their gender, but not when we know their ethnic background. c. We can make fairly accurate predictions about individual students when we know their ethnic background, but not when we know their gender. d. The average for two groups may be different, but variability within each group keeps us from predicting individual performance.

2. Ten-year-old Svana has recently immigrated from Iceland to the United States. If we say that Svana is undergoing acculturation, we mean that she is:

a. refusing to speak any English at school. b. afraid to engage in social activities with her American peers. c. adopting some American behaviors and attitudes. d. maintaining all of the customs of her homeland.

3. Three of the following are likely to give you reasonable clues about a student’s cultural background and/or ethnic group membership. Which one is probably least dependable as an indicator of a student’s cultural background and ethnicity?

a. the color of a student’s skin b. what language is most often spoken at home c. the ethnicity of the student’s parents d. the cultural and religious activities in which a student regularly participates

4. Which one of the following is the best example of playing the dozens?

a. Jameel says to Ronald, “Your momma’s so fat her picture takes two frames.” Ronald responds, “Yeah? Well, your momma’s so fat it took three cows to make her a pair of shoes.” b. Helena tells her friend Mary that Wendy has been saying unkind things behind Mary’s back. She then goes to Wendy and tells her that Mary has been saying unkind things behind her back. c. Tariq devoutly follows Muslim practices (e.g., praying five times a day, fasting during Ramadan) on weekends and school holidays, but he tries to behave as his American classmates do on days when he attends school. d. When Alegria finishes her own classwork, she goes to the assistance of classmates who appear to be struggling with theirs.

Unit 2 Examination

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5. A student says to you, “My momma, she be singin’ all da time.” This student appears to:

a. have a speech disorder that sometimes results from environmental toxins (e.g., lead-based paint). b. have had little exposure to language during a critical period in her language development. c. be using African American English, a dialect with some grammatical constructions different from those of Standard English. d. have grown up in Northern Ireland and so is using idioms typical of that country.

6. Three of the following alternatives describe reasons why, for cultural reasons, children may be relatively quiet in class. Which alternative is false?

a. In some cultures, children rarely hear spoken language until age 3 or 4. b. Children from some cultural backgrounds may have been taught that it’s rude to initiate a conversation with an adult. c. In some cultures, attentive listening is valued more highly than speaking. d. In some cultural groups, children are accustomed to learning more from quiet observation than from asking questions.

7. Psychologists believe that intelligence is culture-specific—that “intelligent” behavior in one culture is not necessarily intelligent behavior in a different culture. Three of the following are aspects of intelligence, regardless of the culture in which it is found. Which one is probably related to intelligence in some cultures but not in others?

a. learning how to perform a new task quickly b. doing well in academic classroom activities c. adapting readily to new situations d. applying prior knowledge to new situations

8. Robert is a 15-year-old boy who has attended U.S. schools since he began kindergarten at age 5. With this fact in mind, identify the task that is most likely to require Robert’s fluid intelligence rather than his crystallized intelligence.

a. applying algebra to a mathematical word problem b. solving a new kind of puzzle c. writing a persuasive essay on a current issue in the news d. finding Egypt on a map

9. Sam is a very talented dancer; he also shows considerable creativity in art class. He finds math and science classes very difficult, but he loves to read and tell stories to his many friends. Which view of intelligence is best reflected in Sam’s abilities?

a. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development b. Gardner’s multiple intelligences c. Sternberg’s triarchic theory d. distributed intelligence

Unit 2 Examination

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

10. Which one of the following statements best reflects Sternberg’s triarchic theory of intelligence?

a. Intelligent behavior is a function of how well people draw on their prior experiences and cognitively process information in order to adapt to their particular environmental situation. b. Intelligent behavior evolves in three stages: preoperational thought, concrete thought and abstract thought. c. To be truly intelligent, one must show competence in critical thinking and appropriate classroom behavior, as well as in traditional academic tasks. d. Intelligence is due to heredity, environment, and a complex interaction between the two; ultimately, researchers will probably never be able to separate the relative effects of heredity and environment.

11. Which one of the following statements most accurately reflects the concept of distributed intelligence?

a. How intelligent students are is, to some extent, a function of class size; students achieve at lower levels when they are in larger classes. b. Students almost invariably perform at higher levels in some academic subject areas than they do in others. c. How intelligent children become is, to some extent, a function of the number of siblings they have; children from larger families tend to have slightly lower IQ scores. d. Students can behave more intelligently when they can use outside resources as well as their minds.

12. “A child’s ability to behave intelligently may vary considerably, depending on the particular context, skills, and cognitive processes required by a given task.” This statement is consistent with three of the following conceptualizations of intelligence. With which one is it least consistent?

a. Gardner’s theory of multiple intelligences b. Sternberg’s triarchic theory c. the concept of distributed intelligence d. Cattell’s concept of fluid intelligence

13. Three of the following are examples of learned behavior. Given the textbook’s definition of learning, which behavior probably does not reflect learning?

a. After many hours of heated debate, Brian begins to modify his religious beliefs. b. Cara suddenly recognizes how the division fact “24 ÷ 4 = 6” is related to the multiplication fact “6 × 4 = 24.” c. David has been running away from German shepherds ever since he was bitten by a German shepherd two years ago. d. Abigail cries when she feels sad.

Unit 2 Examination

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14. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes behaviorists’ view of how learning can best be studied?

a. To study learning scientifically, researchers must confine their investigations to animal research in a laboratory setting. b. The study of learning will be more objective and scientific if only observable events are considered. c. Asking people to describe what they’re thinking as they study is likely to yield the most accurate results. d. Psychologists can determine how learning occurs only if they can identify its physiological basis.

15. Which one of the following statements best characterizes cognitive psychology’s approach to learning?

a. Students are most likely to learn the things they think they will be reinforced for learning. b. Students learn through a series of either-or decisions similar to how computers operate. c. Students’ learning is a function of what they do, mentally, with the information they receive. d. Students’ learning is a function of how stimuli in the environment are organized and sequenced.

16. Which one of the following researchers is drawing an inference about cognitive processes from her observations of behavior?

a. Dr. Aragon finds that students who listen to an organized lecture remember more information than students who listen to an unorganized lecture; she concludes that organized material promotes better learning. b. Dr. Cooper discovers that students remember more when new concepts are illustrated by pictures as well as being verbally described; she concludes that visual imagery helps learning and memory. c. Dr. Burger finds that students who learn information word for word don’t remember it for very long; she concludes that requiring students to learn information verbatim isn’t an effective teaching strategy. d. Dr. Delgado finds that students who listen to foreign language tapes while sleeping don’t remember what they’ve heard; she concludes that being awake is necessary for learning to occur.

17. As human beings, we encounter a great many stimuli at any one time. Which one of the following most accurately reflects cognitive psychologists’ perspective about how we respond to all these stimuli?

a. We cannot remember everything, and we have little control over the things that we do remember. b. We must select the things we think are most important to learn and remember, and ignore the rest. c. We remember virtually everything we experience, but we have difficulty retrieving most of it. d. By learning to use effective long-term memory storage processes, we can eventually begin to remember almost everything we encounter.

Unit 2 Examination

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

18. When cognitive psychologists talk about the process of “putting” things in memory, they often use the term:

a. inference-drawing. b. retrieval. c. selectivity. d. storage.

19. Many cognitive psychologists believe that learning and understanding are often constructive in nature. Three of the following scenarios illustrate such construction. Which scenario does not necessarily involve construction in learning?

a. When George reads about the Vietnam War in his history book, he comes to the conclusion that the United States should never have gotten involved in Southeast Asia. b. Mr. McFarland asks his third graders to practice their multiplication tables every day. After a month of such practice, Misty can retrieve all the basic multiplication facts quickly and easily. c. Because the word photosynthesis begins with photo, Jeremy guesses that it must have something to do with taking photographs. d. Although no one has ever told her so, Peggy thinks that the night sky is a big black blanket covering the earth and that the blanket has tiny holes through which the stars shine.

20. Mr. Janus tells his class, “For tomorrow’s class, read pages 23 to 49 in your geography book.” Three of the following students are demonstrating the process of construction in their perceptions of what their teacher has said. Which student is not?

a. Christopher “hears” the teacher say “pages 33 to 39” because the student next to him is coughing loudly. b. Anthony thinks the teacher is saying “history book.” c. Bonita doesn’t hear what the teacher says because she’s thinking about something else. d. Dena understands the teacher even though the teacher speaks with a slight accent and mispronounces the word geography.

21. Michael has just written a short research paper that describes the events surrounding the first transatlantic telegraph cable. As he rereads his paper before giving it to his teacher, he doesn’t notice that he has misspelled Atlantic as “Altantic” on one occasion, even though he knows perfectly well how the word should be spelled. Michael’s proofreading error can best be explained by considering the role of __________ in the construction of meaning.

a. a script b. expectations c. assessment d. ambiguity

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22. Morris is trying to remember how to spell the word broccoli. He retrieves the first three letters (B R O) and the last three (O L I), then assumes that the “kuh” sound in the middle of the word must be a K. He writes “brokoli” on his paper. Morris’ process of remembering how to spell the word (in this case, incorrectly) illustrates which one of the following concepts?

a. verbal mediation b. a script c. construction in retrieval d. a retrieval cue

23. Which one of the following scenarios best reflects the basic idea of social constructivism?

a. Two students discuss possible interpretations of the proverb, “We only know the worth of water when the well is dry.” b. When a student borrows a classmate’s marker without asking and then forgets to put the cap back on, leaving it dried out and useless by the following morning, her teacher reminds her of one of the class rules: “Respect your classmates’ property.” c. Four students in a study group divide a reading assignment into four sections. Each student reads a section and then teaches the material to the other group members. d. A teacher assigns a laboratory activity using cumbersome equipment that students can operate successfully only by working in pairs.

24. Distributed cognition can best be described as a:

a. group of students thinking about a task or problem together. b. student trying to accomplish several different tasks simultaneously. c. group of students dividing up the various parts of a task that need to be done. d. student choosing one problem-solving strategy over other possible strategies.

25. Which one of the following examples best illustrates the concept of distributed cognition?

a. Rhonda watches her favorite situation comedy while simultaneously eating an apple and doing her homework. b. Edie, Linda, and DeWayne discuss various ways they might solve a physics problem. c. Mark, Jason, and Leanne each solve one-third of their homework problems and then share their results with the other two. d. Reginald thinks about the various plots he might use in the short story he is writing and then eventually chooses one of them.

Unit 3 Examination

132

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Weston is working on a science project and wants to make his papier-mâché volcano “erupt.” He remembers that when his mother combined vinegar and baking soda while following a recipe, the batter foamed up as she added the vinegar. So he tries mixing vinegar and baking soda in his volcano and the mixture bubbles. Weston is showing ___________ transfer.

a. negative b. general c. specific d. intuitive

2. Mary is majoring in drama. Mary’s parents want her to study advanced mathematics as a way of strengthening her mind; with a stronger mind, they argue, she will be able to learn her lines more easily when she is rehearsing for a play. Based on their reasoning, which one of the following perspectives of transfer do Mary’s parents hold?

a. formal discipline b. specific transfer c. situated cognition d. information processing

3. Which one of the following recommendations is consistent with current beliefs about transfer?

a. “Study German so you’ll have an easier time learning Japanese next year.” b. “Studying calculus will help you think more abstractly about the various subjects you will study in college.” c. “Take computer programming to help you develop your analytical thinking skills.” d. “Use your knowledge of algebra to solve this chemistry equation.”

4. Considering the textbook’s views on general transfer, which one of the following is most likely to transfer across very different situations?

a. the ability to remember complex ideas b. the ability to take good notes on a lecture c. the ability to memorize a poem d. the ability to be creative

Unit 3 Examination

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5. Three of the following are accurate statements about factors that affect transfer. Which statement is inaccurate?

a. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they see it as “belonging” to a particular academic subject area. b. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have studied it for a lengthy period of time. c. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned it in a meaningful, rather than rote, fashion. d. Students are more likely to transfer what they have learned when they have learned general principles rather than specific facts.

6. In which one of the following situations are we most likely to find transfer from one learning task to the other?

a. Brianne learns how to plant corn and then learns how to prune a hedge. b. Alice learns how to add two-digit numbers and then studies how to add three-digit numbers. c. Devlin learns how to play softball and then learns how to play a card game. d. Cathy learns early British history and then learns early Japanese history.

7. A police officer visits Ms. Duhaime’s first-grade class one morning to talk about safety precautions at home and on the street. The students listen quietly and attentively while the officer speaks. At the end of the visit, the officer and teacher agree that the students’ good behavior warrants some kind of reinforcement. Given what we know about effective reinforcers at different grade levels, their best choice would be:

a. a letter home to parents describing the children’s good behavior. b. plastic toy police “badges” awarded by the officer. c. an official-looking “good behavior” certificate given at the school’s award ceremony the following week. d. twenty minutes of free time at the end of the day.

8. If you wanted to encourage kindergartners to delay gratification, you would be most likely to:

a. occasionally remind them that they will get a bigger reward by waiting a couple of hours. b. tell them that how well they behave at the end of the day is what really counts. c. talk about how their learning efforts today will pay off in the years to come. d. ask them to focus on how good it feels to do something nice for a classmate.

9. Alex loses his best friend, Tyler, after he tattles on Tyler at recess. Alex learns that tattling on friends is not a good idea. The loss of Tyler’s friendship is an example of:

a. removal punishment. b. negative reinforcement. c. presentation punishment. d. positive reinforcement.

Unit 3 Examination

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10. Linda wears bell-bottom pants to school and her classmates tease her about them. As soon as she gets home, Linda throws the pants in the trash. Linda’s being teased is an example of:

a. negative reinforcement. b. reinforcement of an incompatible behavior. c. removal punishment. d. presentation punishment.

11. Only one of the following consequences has been shown to be an effective and appropriate punishment for most students. Which one is it?

a. suspension from school b. scolding c. embarrassment in front of classmates d. extra homework

12. When Rochelle has an on-the-road lesson as part of her driver education class, she fails to stop at a school crossing zone, as is required by law. Her instructor has her drive around the block several times and stop each time at the crossing zone. He also insists that, once she has stopped, she must wait at least eight seconds before proceeding. The instructor’s strategy illustrates the use of __________ as a way of changing her behavior.

a. response cost b. a logical consequence c. intermittent reinforcement d. positive-practice overcorrection

13. Considering what we know about the kinds of models people are likely to imitate, we can guess that the girls in our classes will be least likely to imitate:

a. Brianne, head majorette in the school band. b. Anita, a skillful auto mechanic. c. Darla, a graceful dancer. d. Claudia, the most popular girl in school.

14. From the perspective of social cognitive theory, why might inner-city African American students learn more from an African American model who grew up in a ghetto than from a model of a different race or background?

a. because the students will view the African American model’s behavior as being applicable to their own situation b. because the students are more likely to realize that the African American model has prestige c. because the African American model is more likely to behave in a gender-appropriate manner d. because the students are more likely to perceive the African American model as being competent

Unit 3 Examination

135

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

15. Social cognitive theorists propose that three of the following are essential for students to learn successfully from models. Which one is not essential?

a. attention to the model b. reinforcement for good performance c. motivation to perform the behavior d. memory of the observed behavior

16. Only one of the following definitely illustrates high self-efficacy. Which one is the best example of self-efficacy?

a. Carmen enjoys being with her friends. b. Bryn swims the fastest butterfly on the swim team. c. Amy recently got a score of 120 on an intelligence test. d. Danielle knows she is a good singer.

17. In what way does self-efficacy differ from the term self-concept?

a. Self-efficacy results primarily from vicarious reinforcement and punishment. b. Self-efficacy varies depending on the specific task to be performed. c. Self-efficacy refers only to behaviors that people learn through modeling. d. Self-efficacy appears only after people begin to regulate their own behavior.

18. Jim has a high sense of self-efficacy regarding his ability to work with wood. Based on this information, we would predict three of the following from social cognitive theory. Which one of the following would we not necessarily predict?

a. Jim will be a bit careless when he works with wood, so he will often make silly little mistakes. b. Jim will frequently choose activities that involve working with wood. c. Compared to Joe, who has low self-efficacy, Jim will do a better job at woodworking tasks. d. If Jim has difficulty at a task requiring his woodworking skills, he will tend to “try, try again” until he gets it right.

19. Identify the student who appears to have a mastery goal rather than a performance goal.

a. When Abby gets a new assignment, she likes to set it aside for a day or so before she actually begins to work on it. b. When given the choice between taking an easy class or a more challenging one, Dana chooses the challenging one. c. Bonnie is a perfectionist who gets upset when her test performance is anything but A+. d. Cora is easily distracted by the many stimuli competing for her attention in the classroom.

Unit 3 Examination

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

20. Which one of the following students clearly has a mastery goal rather than a performance goal?

a. Alice stays away from science courses because she’s never done very well in science. b. Dinah doesn’t worry about making mistakes as long as she knows she’s making progress. c. Boris wants the recognition that being a star football player will bring him. d. Cal is relieved to learn he passed his English composition course.

21. Three of the following strategies should promote productive achievement goals. Which strategy is not recommended?

a. Encourage students to focus on long-term rather than short-term goals. b. Commend students for truly understanding material rather than just memorizing it. c. Encourage students to rely on one another for occasional academic assistance and support. d. Show students how the things they learn in class are relevant to their present and future needs.

22. Which one of the following students most clearly has a work-avoidance goal?

a. Loni is so active in student government that she often doesn’t have time to get her homework done. b. Chris asks for his teacher’s help on something he is perfectly capable of doing on his own. c. Frederick stayed up so late last night watching television that he can hardly stay awake in class. d. Nancy wonders why she has to work harder than her friends to get the same grades they do.

23. Three of the following statements accurately describe the diversity we are likely to see in students’ career goals. Which statement is not accurate?

a. Students’ career choices are to some extent dependent on the values they assign to various professions. b. Many young children reach relatively stable decisions about which career they want to pursue; adolescents change their minds fairly frequently. c. Despite more open-mindedness about career options in recent years, many students continue to aspire to careers that are stereotypically “for” their own gender. d. Many children and adolescents from low-income neighborhoods express interest in becoming well-educated professionals (e.g., doctors, lawyers, teachers).

Unit 3 Examination

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PSY 430 Educational Psychology

24. Which one of the following is the best example of a student attributing success to internal factors?

a. Sue Ellen has just gotten a good grade on her geography test. She is proud that she did so well and glad that she studied hard. b. Polly’s teacher has just told her that she will be the group leader for her reading group next quarter. Polly is glad her teacher is in a good mood today. c. Renata has just gotten a good grade on her math test and she is glad that her mother got her a math tutor. d. Nita has just gotten an A on her final exam in world history and is feeling very grateful to the teacher for her good grade.

25. Which one of the following students is attributing success or failure on a geology test to an internal source and thinks the cause is unstable and controllable?

a. Duncan said he did well on the test because he studied hard. b. Joe said he studied hard, but he failed because he is just not good in geology. c. Jane said she failed the test because it was too difficult. d. Emily said she did well on her test because she is smart in science.

Unit 4 Examination

180

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Mr. Phillips wants his students to develop the ability to separate and control variables in scientific experimentation. Which one of the following instructional methods is most likely to help his students achieve this goal?

a. individualized assignments using computer spreadsheets b. unstructured discovery-learning activities c. small-group reciprocal-teaching activities d. scaffolded inquiry-learning activities

2. Which one of the following conditions is recommended for effective learning in a discovery- learning activity?

a. having a lesson that has been broken down into small, discrete pieces b. having freedom to explore one’s environment without any structure or restraint c. having some prior knowledge about the material being explored d. having an advance organizer for the lesson

3. Which one of the following is the best example of an authentic in-class activity?

a. discussing reasons why World War I occurred b. putting definitions of new terms in your own words c. listing four different kinds of sedimentary rocks d. designing a bridge using principles of physics

4. Which one of the following uses of a computer in instruction is most similar to an authentic activity?

a. a computer-based instructional program that teaches the various parts of the human digestive system b. a computer-based instructional program that teaches the basics of first aid c. a computer simulation that allows students to conduct an experiment d. a computer game that promotes automaticity for basic math facts

5. The four teachers below are assigning homework to their students. Which teacher is giving an assignment that’s inconsistent with general recommendations regarding the appropriate use of homework?

a. Mr. Needham asks his first graders to bring something from home that begins with the letter B. b. Ms. Wong asks her sixth graders to make up sentences using each of their new spelling words. c. Ms. Powell asks her high school algebra students to read the next two chapters in their textbook and then do the problems at the end of each chapter. d. Mr. Rhodes asks his eighth graders to write the answers to a series of questions based on material they’ve been studying over the past week.

Unit 4 Examination

181

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

6. Three of the following are purposes that asking questions in class can serve. Which one is not a typical use of asking questions?

a. to decrease the extent to which students need to cognitively process classroom material b. to encourage students to elaborate on classroom material c. to help students monitor their own comprehension of classroom material d. to determine whether students understand classroom material

7. Ms. Girardi, a sixth-grade teacher, is explaining an assignment. She notices two students passing notes to one another. While continuing to discuss the assignment, she moves toward the students and confiscates the written notes. Then she walks back to the front of the class, still continuing her explanation, and asks Mark, who is daydreaming, to answer a question. This scenario best illustrates which one of the following classroom management skills?

a. planning for transitions b. withitness c. negative reinforcement d. scaffolding

8. Many students in Ms. Janklow’s class seem to have little intrinsic motivation for learning math, science or social studies. Their minds are more apt to be on peer relationships (who the “popular kids” are, who bullies whom on the playground, etc.) than on their studies. Without knowing anything else about Ms. Janklow’s students, your best guess would be that they are:

a. kindergartners. b. seventh graders. c. fourth graders. d. second graders.

9. From the textbook’s perspective, which one of the following classroom management strategies is probably most important for students from diverse ethnic backgrounds?

a. setting limits b. planning effectively for transitions c. creating a supportive climate d. demonstrating withitness

10. Three of the following describe recommendations that the textbook offers for helping students with special needs. Which statement is inconsistent with the textbook’s recommendations?

a. Give students with physical disabilities any additional time they may need to complete assigned tasks. b. When students have significant general delays in cognitive development, give them explicit feedback about their behavior. c. When students have specific cognitive or academic difficulties, teach them strategies for organizing their time more effectively. d. When students have social or behavioral problems, vary the classroom routine considerably from one day to the next.

Unit 4 Examination

182

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

11. Which one of the following best illustrates collective self-efficacy of teachers?

a. A third-grade teacher and a fourth-grade teacher at North Elementary School have combined their two classes into a single, larger class. Sometimes they team-teach the entire group. At other times they divide the class into two smaller groups, one of which is ready for more advanced work than the other. b. The teachers at South Elementary School have coordinated what they do at each grade level so that at any particular grade, students master the knowledge and skills they will need in the following grade. c. The English teachers at East High School have agreed on how they will teach the required freshman English class. That way, students will have a similar classroom experience no matter which teacher they have for the course. d. The teachers at West Middle School confer weekly about students who they believe are at risk for academic failure, and they are confident that by working together, they can help these students be successful at school.

12. Three of the following strategies are recommended for conducting effective parent-teacher conferences. Which strategy is not necessarily recommended?

a. Minimize your use of educational jargon. b. Prepare ahead of time by reviewing what you know about the student. c. Emphasize that the student’s education is ultimately your responsibility rather than that of parents. d. Encourage parents to share their perspectives and ideas.

13. Which one of the following is a drawback of using essay questions on a paper-pencil assessment?

a. Lengthy essay questions can limit sampling of the content domain being assessed. b. Guessing is likely to inflate students’ scores considerably. c. Reliability tends to be lower than that for recognition tasks. d. The administration of essay questions is difficult to standardize.

14. From the textbook’s perspective, which one of the following is the primary advantage of allowing students to use reference materials during a paper-pencil assessment?

a. Students are more likely to learn material meaningfully if they know they are going to have an open-book test rather than a closed-book test. b. Such a procedure is less likely to lead to test anxiety than would otherwise be true. c. Students don’t have to study the material ahead of time; they can simply learn it during the assessment session. d. Such a procedure better assesses students’ ability to apply material that they don’t necessarily need to commit to memory.

Unit 4 Examination

183

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

15. When we give high school students instructions about a summative classroom assessment, we should:

a. assume that they have had experience with such standard item types as true-false and multiple-choice. b. always deduct points for any grammatical or spelling errors. c. give them considerable freedom about how to respond. d. communicate clear guidelines about how they should respond.

16. Three of the following are accurate statements about cheating in the classroom. Which one is not necessarily accurate?

a. Students are more likely to cheat if they think their teacher is a “softie” who grades leniently. b. Students are more likely to cheat if they have performance goals rather than mastery goals. c. Students are more likely to cheat if they think their teacher’s expectations for them are unreasonably high. d. Students are more likely to cheat if they think an assessment instrument doesn’t reflect classroom objectives.

17. Which one of the following illustrates the use of a rubric in a classroom assessment?

a. In a swimming test, students are asked to swim one lap each of the breaststroke, backstroke and crawl. b. A math assignment presents a complex problem with several parts and asks students to break it down into at least five simpler problems. c. Responses to a 10-point essay in a history class are given 5 points for describing historical events accurately, 4 points for explaining how the events are interrelated, and 1 point for using complete sentences throughout the essay. d. A science test has 30 multiple-choice questions, 10 alternative-response questions, 3 short-answer questions and one essay.

18. The four students below have just received feedback about their test performance. With the textbook’s discussion of assessment and feedback in mind, choose the student who is most likely to benefit from the feedback he or she has received.

a. Garry got his multiple-choice science test back with the errors circled in red and the comment, “You need to study harder for the next test” written at the top of the page. b. Kerrie received her math test with any incorrect answers corrected in red and with the comment, “You have learned how to ‘carry’ in addition but are having trouble with ‘borrowing’ in subtraction.” c. Jerry could not see his geography test after it was scored as his teacher plans to use the test again with next year’s class. However, he’s gotten the feedback, “You need to work more on the characteristics of the countries we’re studying.” d. Harry received his history essay test with the comment, “You have a thorough knowledge of history, but your discussion is vague and disorganized.”

Unit 4 Examination

184

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

19. The textbook author suggests that it is not a good idea to incorporate more than a few extra- credit points into students’ grades. Why?

a. Incorporating extra-credit work into classroom grades typically affects only the grades of high-achieving students, so it is not worth the time and trouble. b. The time spent on extra-credit assignments is better spent planning classroom activities. c. Scores on extra-credit projects frequently suffer from low reliability. d. Too many opportunities for extra-credit points allow students who have not met instructional objectives to get good grades.

20. Which one of the following statements best reflects the textbook’s recommendation with regard to assigning criterion-referenced or norm-referenced grades?

a. Assign criterion-referenced grades in the lower elementary grades and in all low-ability classes; assign norm-referenced grades in high-ability classes in the middle school and high school grades. b. Assign norm-referenced grades at all grade levels to the extent that such is possible. c. Assign criterion-referenced grades at all grade levels to the extent that such is possible. d. Assign criterion-referenced grades at the elementary level, but assign norm-referenced grades at the high school level.

21. Three of the following statements are accurate with regard to the advantages of portfolios. Which statement is false?

a. Portfolios are useful for fostering students’ self-evaluation skills. b. Portfolios provide a means through which instruction and assessment can be easily interrelated. c. As a means of summarizing students’ achievement, portfolios have greater practicality than final grades. d. Portfolios can reflect the complex nature of students’ achievement.

22. For which one of the following classes would it be most helpful to create an electronic portfolio rather than a paper portfolio?

a. a high school creative writing class b. a high school debating class c. a middle school geography class d. a middle school math class

Unit 4 Examination

185

PSY 430 Educational Psychology

23. Three of the teachers below are using strategies consistent with the textbook’s recommendations regarding the use of portfolios. Which one is not consistent?

a. Ms. Gaudet lists the criteria that she will use to evaluate students’ portfolios. b. Ms. James tells each of her students which specific artifacts they should include in their class portfolios. c. Ms. Salih asks students to include at least four writing samples written at various times during the school year in order to show how they have improved over time. d. Ms. Shaklee asks her students to include a brief statement about each of the entries they include in their portfolios.

24. How can teachers most accurately assess the content validity of a standardized achievement test?

a. Calculate the correlation between the scores of the norm group and the scores of the students in the classroom. b. Consult the test manual regarding content validity data for the norm group. c. Compare the school curriculum to a table of specifications for the test. d. Calculate the correlation between the students’ scores on the test and their scores on a similar achievement test.

25. Which one of the following questions is more likely to be found on a scholastic aptitude test than on an achievement test?

a. Of what two elements does water consist? b. What’s missing in this picture of a chair? c. How is the circumference of a circle calculated? d. What significant historical event happened at Waterloo, Belgium, in 1815?

 

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