As noted in “Thinking Ethically: A Framework for Moral Decision Making,” selecting an approach for dealing with moral issues:
|a.||makes obvious the decision that must be reached.|
|b.||tends to obfuscate the values issues involved.|
|c.||provides a strategy for defending decisions.|
|d.||helps identify ethical considerations.|
As explained in “Thinking Ethically: A Framework for Moral Decision Making,” the approach to moral issues that is based on the principle that there are certain ideals toward which we should strive is called the:
As presented in “Thinking Ethically: A Framework for Moral Decision Making,” virtues are like habits – once they are acquired, they become characteristic of a person.
As related in “Principles for Building an Ethical Organization,” the Indian story of Arjuna was told at a recent ethics conference to illustrate:
|a.||the value of integrity-based business.|
|b.||that women are the assets of a company.|
|c.||how the same techniques that work in one context may not work in another.|
|d.||how private-sector organizations can be just as ethical as non-profit organizations.|
As suggested in “Principles for Building an Ethical Organization,” in order to preserve an ethical business model, companies should:
|a.||control the ethical standards of every employee.|
|b.||maintain and encourage ethical behavior on the part of all its employees, even when there have been unethical actions within the company.|
|c.||address the problem of unethical behavior once ethical lapses have occurred.|
|d.||follow the ethical standards set forth by government regulations.|
As asserted in “Markets and Morals,” for believers in market fundamentalism, laissez-faire is never optimal.
According to Michael Sandel in “Markets and Morals,” the marketization of everything means that people of affluence and people of modest means lead increasingly separate lives.
In the Penn State University sexual-abuse case, as presented in “Ethical Leadership and the Dual Roles of Examples,” there were no charges filed against football head coach Joe Paterno because the district attorney determined that:
|a.||Paterno had fulfilled his legal obligations in reporting the alleged abuse to the athletics director.|
|b.||there was little evidence to connect him with the crimes.|
|c.||he had no prior knowledge of the crimes.|
|d.||he had taken steps above and beyond what was required to see that the abuse charges were fully investigated.|
Learning the right lessons from examples involving ethical decision making, as pointed out in “Ethical Leadership and the Dual Roles of Examples,” often require overcoming common human tendencies that adversely affect the quality of thinking and decision-making.
One potential obstacle to learning from the Penn State sexual-abuse scandal, as pointed out in “Ethical Leadership and the Dual Roles of Examples,” is that corporate leaders could look to this example and claim that:
|a.||educational institutions have little resemblance to corporations.|
|b.||Penn State does not have shareholders to satisfy.|
|c.||the ethical failings there were too large to ingnore by reasonable people.|
|d.||any lapse of theirs pales in comparison.|
As observed in “Under Pressure, Teachers Tamper with Test Scores,” research conducted by economist Steven D. Levitt concluded that about half of elementary school teachers cheat.
According to a state investigation conducted in 2009 at a charter school in Springfield, Mass., as noted in “Under Pressure, Teachers Tamper with Test Scores,” the principal:
|a.||pressured teachers to use an overhead projector to show those students answers.|
|b.||encouraged teachers to erase students’ answers and pencil in correct responses.|
|c.||told teachers to look over students’ shoulders and point out the wrong answers.|
|d.||implemented policies and procedures to prevent cheating.|
As mentioned in “When Good People Do Bad Things at Work,” in order to prevent the potential use of scripts that precipitate unethical behavior, one Oklahoma newspaper:
|a.||created a seminar to educate employees on avoiding scripts.|
|b.||implemented job rotation for most editors.|
|c.||required employees to donate time to charitable causes.|
|d.||required employees to interact with people who were morally excluded.|
As noted in “When Good People Do Bad Things at Work,” genuinely good people do not behave unethically.
As brought out in “When Good People Do Bad Things at Work,” scripts require that people empathize with those who are suffering.
As given in “American Apparel and the Ethics of a Sexually Charged Workplace,” a lawsuit brought by Irene Morales charged American Apparel CEO Dov Charney with:
As characterized in “American Apparel and the Ethics of a Sexually Charged Workplace,” the ethics policy at American Apparel does not mention ethical conduct relating to personal relationships.
As noted in “Older Workers: Running to the Courthouse?”, the Equal Employement Opportunity Commission:
|a.||has unlimited leverage in discrimination cases.|
|b.||cannot conciliate claims.|
|c.||cannot issue financial awards to aggrieved parties.|
|d.||can render judgments on the merits of cases.|
As stated in “Older Workers: Running to the Courthouse?”, high-powered executives trade in the right to sue when they are hired.
As observed in “Older Workers: Running to the Courthouse?”, reasons for the relatively small number of age-discrimination cases at the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission include:
|a.||older workers do not want to paint a bulls-eye on themselves.|
|b.||older workers complain fairly often.|
|c.||discrimination is fairly rare.|
|d.||the legal requirements are very obscure.|
As reported in “People Have to Come before Profits, Even in a Crisis,” the Fukushima Daiichi power-plant disaster involved a:
|a.||chemical leak like the 1984 Bhopal disaster.|
|b.||full nuclear meltdown akin to the Chernobyl accident.|
|c.||serious nuclear incident on the scale of the 1979 Three Mile Island accident.|
|d.||serious oil spill similar to the 2010 BP accident in the Gulf of Mexico.|
As profiled in “People Have to Come before Profits, Even in a Crisis,” the major cause of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident was:
|b.||flooding from the tsunami.|
|c.||structural damage from the earthquake.|
|d.||wind damage from the hurricane.|
As suggested in “Whistleblowers: Why You Should Heed Their Warnings,” companies should:
|a.||try to show whistleblowers as vengeful or crazy.|
|b.||investigate every whistleblower claim ferociously.|
|c.||isolate whistleblowers from other employees.|
|d.||always begin by denying whistleblower claims.|
As described in “Whistleblowers: Why You Should Heed Their Warnings,” the American company currently facing a whistleblower crisis is:
According to “Whistleblowers: Why You Should Heed Their Warnings,” there is a pervasive, even understandable, impulse within companies to ignore whistleblowers because they are so often time wasters.
The single-most common way that fraud is detected with U.S. corporations, as described in ” The Unexpected Cost of Staying Silent,” is through:
|b.||tip-offs from whistleblowers.|
The incidence of whistle-blowing may soon rise, as reported in “The Unexpected Cost of Staying Silent,” as a result of new regulations that:
|a.||financially reward employees for their information.|
|b.||will protect whistleblowers from retaliation.|
|c.||may hold employees liable for staying silent.|
|d.||limit liabilities for corporate fraud.|
Respondents to a recent survey, as presented in “The Unexpected Cost of Staying Silent,” reported no feelings of regret for not reporting instances of:
|b.||claiming reimbursement for personal travel.|
|c.||inappropriate time-sheet reporting.|
|d.||stealing supplies from the company.|
According to “The Unexpected Cost of Staying Silent,” the individuals most likely to act as whistleblowers are:
|c.||employees with advanced degrees.|
Data from a recent study, as cited in “The Unexpected Cost of Staying Silent,” indicates that more than half of all companies internationally have uncovered a significant economic crime within the previous 12-month period.