Counseling theories provide therapists with:

PSY 525

Counseling Systems and Techniques

Text: Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy: A Case Approach

2nd Edition, 2009

ISBN-10: 0132286521; ISBN-13: 9780132286527

Authors:

Nancy L. Murdock

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. A counseling theory:

a. helps therapists organize information about their clients.

b. may lead a therapist to view a client from a biased perspective.

c. contributes to the gap between theory and practice.

d. both a and b are true.

2. Counseling theories provide therapists with:

a. fancy ways to talk to their clients about their presenting problems.

b. a method to identify with their cl ients.

c. a professional schemata.

d. alternative to relying on self-disclosure during therapy sessions.

3. A good counseling theory is:

a. precise.

b. has empirical support.

c. fits the cl ient well.

d. a and b

4. The most important point of Project MATCH was to:

a. conduct a bigger, better, psychotherapy outcome study.

b. discover the unique ingredients of the Alcoholics Anonymous approach.

c. look at the effectiveness of three approaches to therapy with many kinds of clients.

d. assess the effects of client characteristics in psychotherapy outcome.

5. The Consumer Reports study was controversial because:

a. it used retrospective reports of cl ients.

b. it was not an experi mental study.

c. the therapists in the study were atheoretical.

d. a and b

6. The Scientist-Practitioner Model means that:

a. all counselors should be scientists.

b. all counseling should be conducted in a laboratory.

c. most of the standard counseling theories should be abandoned.

d. none of the above

7. The role of the analyst is BEST characterized as that of:

a. a sage.

b. a teacher.

c. a fellow traveler.

d. a doctor.

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8. Susan, the analyst, looks forward to her 10:00 client on Fridays. She spends a lot of time reading about issues relevant to this client’s presentation. Susan is probably experiencing:

a. countertransference.

b. transference.

c. sublimation,

d. burnout.

9. Traditional psychoanalysis is:

a. well supported by research.

b. popular with insurance companies.

c. not supported by research.

d. never practiced anymore.

10. The primary purpose of the training analysis is:

a. to prevent countertransference.

b. to make sure that the therapist knows her theory.

c. to examine parallel processes between client and counselor.

d. to ensure the continuation of psychoanalytic psychotherapy.

11. Susan is an analyst who is worki ng with her cl ient Chloe and asks Ch loe to “free associate” and tell Susan everything that comes into her mind. Chloe does not disclose everything that she is thinking because she does not feel that it is relevant to the session. Chloe has:

a. violated the Fundamental Rule of Psychoanalysis.

b. assumed the role of the analyst.

c. taken the “back seat”.

d. completed her formal assessment.

12. Which of the following is true regarding the Id and the Ego?

a. The goal of the id is to seek pleasure and avoid pain, and the goal of the Ego is to satisfy the Id and keep the individual safe.

b. Topographically, the Id represents unconsciousness and the Ego represents consciousness.

c. The Id neutralizes pressure that the individual experiences from the environment and the Ego provides a moral guide for the individual.

d. The Id operates according to secondary process and the Ego operates according to primary process.

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13. Women experience a more difficult development path, according to Freud, because they:

a. are inherently inferior to men.

b. have male relatives.

c. do not develop egos.

d. don’t experience a fear of castration.

14. The end result of SP therapy is:

a. to rebuild the self rather than insight or expansion of the ego’s capacities.

b. to repress all unpleasant childhood memories.

C. to be more in touch with the sexual and aggressive aspects of one’s personality. d. to have more friends.

15. The core of therapy in the SP model is:

a. transference.

b. enlightenment.

c. empathy.

d. disengagement.

16. Which of the following theories uses formal assessment methods?

a. Self Psychology (SP)

b. Ego Psychology (EP)

c. Object relations (OR)

d. None of the above

17. RP practitioners prefer to meet with the cl ients more than once a week:

a. because they want to earn extra money.

b. to encourage the development of the countertransference.

c. to encourage development of the transference relationship.

d. none of the above

18. The goal(s) of RP is/are:

a. to give the client new ways of interacting with others.

b. to help them get in touch with their inner self.

c. to help clients change relationship patterns that are problematic.

d. a and c

19. Neoanalytics were about the only theorists to write extensively about:

a. personal ity disorders.

b. sexual urges.

c. family dysfunction.

d. aggression.

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20. Laurie doesn’t do her homework. According to Adler, her parents should:

a. force her to do it.

b. do it for her.

c. talk to her teacher.

d. allow natural consequences.

21. Which of the following is true about outcome research on Individual Psychology counseling?

a. It can be questioned methodologically.

b. It is uniformly supportive of IP theory.

c. It is not supportive of I P theory.

d. It is publ ished in many journals.

22. Which of the following best describes Alfred Adler’s view of human nature?

a. Humans develop the desire to achieve perfection based on feedback that they receive from

their adult caregivers.

b. Humans are more likely to adapt to their environment when they develop apart from others.

c. Humans create their own life paths.

d. Humans are born with a sense of superiority.

23. Jennie tells her Adlerian counselor that she would love be a party girl but she is just too shy.

Andy, the Adlerian, instructs Jennie to spend the next two weeks pretending that she is outgoing and sociable. Andy is using the Individual Psychology technique know as:

a. creating images.

b. pushing the button.

c. acting as if.

d. interpretation.

24. Alfred Adler believes that psychological dysfunction results from:

a. lifestyles that enhance the self and are not socially oriented.

b. satisfying the needs of society rather than focusing on the needs of self.

c. a fundamental lack of connection between mind and body.

d. failing to use the organismic valuing system to evaluate self worth.

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25. Dwight is a well-trained Adlerian therapist. Richard has begun treatment with Dwight to relieve his feelings of anxiety that he experiences when giving presentations at work.

During last week’s session, Dwight instructed Richard to visualize being at the ocean, a scene that brings pleasant feelings to Richard. Dwight then instructed Richard to visualize giving a presentation and focus on his feelings of anxiety. When Dwight reported to Richard that he felt substantially anxious, Richard instructed Dwight to again visualize being at the ocean and focus on the calm feelings that he experienced.

The purpose of the intervention that Richard used was to:

a. allow Dwight to gain awareness of his unconscious aggression toward is co-workers.

b. allow Dwight to consider the ridiculous nature of his reaction to giving presentations.

c. teach Dwight that he has control over the feelings that he experiences.

d. experience life from another person’s perspective.

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Written Assignment for Unit One

• I nclude your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e, an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a

standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the I nternet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Describe the stages of psychoanalysis.

2. Describe how Self Psychology is different from the other three types of neoanalytical theories.

3. Discuss Adler’s ideas about birth order.

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Tim comes to the counselor because he is afraid of life. He does not trust others and therefore has difficulty establishing satisfying relationships. His Person Centered therapist, Carl, would hope that, as a result of counseling, Tim could:

a. learn assertiveness skills.

b. be more in touch with his experience.

c. use fewer defense mechanisms.

d. confront his parents about conditions of worth they instilled.

2. Patty, the Person Centered counselor, tells her client Jose that she is feeling uncomfortable with the way he interacts with her. She is demonstrati ng:

a. congruence.

b. misjudgment.

c. countertransference.

d. anxiety.

3. Person Centered therapy has been criticized because:

a. it is too positive about human beings.

b. the techniques are difficult to learn.

c. it is individualistic.

d. a and c

4. The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapy, according to Person Centered theorists, include all EXCEPT:

a. the client and counselor are equals.

b. counselor is the expert, guiding the client on a journey to healing.

c. the counselor strives to understand the client’s experience.

d. all of the above are necessary and sufficient conditions.

5. Achieving good health is a process, not a:

a. destination.

b. impossible outcome.

c. fluke.

d. dream.

6. In a Person Centered model, growth of the individual depends upon:

a. creating conditions of worth.

b. accurate perceptions of others.

c. accurate perceptions of experience.

d. eliminating destructive tendencies.

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7. Little Stella has a friend, Shelly, who tends to punch on Stella when they play together.

Lately, Stella has been crying when she sees Shelly and tries to crawl away from her. Stella is demon strati ng the operation of the:

a. self-actual ization tendency.

b. core conditions.

c. conditions of worth.

d. organismic valuing process.

8. If you were an ET theorist and your client was “being in the physical world”, what is the correct term for that state of bei ng?

a. Umwelt

b. Mitwelt

c. Eigenwelt

d. Bigwelt

9. If you were an ET theorist and your client was “in the inner psychological world”, what is the correct term for that state of bei ng?

a.

Umwelt

b.

Mitwelt

c.

Eigenwelt

d.

Bigwelt

10. In Existential theory, the ultimate concern is:

a. bankruptcy.

b. being unloved.

c. death.

d. a and c

11. Th is type of anxiety is destructive, paralyzi ng and tends to be repressed:

a.

Normal

b.

Existential

c.

Neurotic

d.

Psychotic

12. When a client is experiencing guilt about possibilities unfulfilled, this is called:

a. Catholic guilt.

b. existential gu i It.

c. Umwelt guilt.

d. normal guilt.

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13. An ET counselor is more interested in the client’s __ experience than his/her __ .

a. present; past

b. present; future

c. past; present

d. future; present

14. A major characteristic of the therapeutic atmosphere of Gestalt therapy is to:

a. focus solely on events of the past and disregard the experience of the here and now.

b. focus solely on the experience of the here and now and disregard what has happened in the past.

c. examine what has happened in the past as it is experienced in the here and now of therapy.

d. prevent the client from gaining awareness of how past events influence how he or she interacts in the here and now.

Please answer questions 15 – 16 based on the following paragraph:

Desi is a 35 year-old Hispanic male who moved to the U.S. from Mexico approximately 4 years ago. Desi is married to Julie, a 32 year-old Caucasian female, who is an assistant professor in the counseling psychology program of a well-known university. Desi and Julie have 3 children and

the couple decided after their first child was born that Desi would care for the children due to Julie’s full-time teaching and research activities. Desi was referred to counseling by his primary care physician due to Desi’s complaint of panic attacks. nightmares, and shortness of breath. His therapist (Pat) is a practicing Gestalt therapist.

15. Pat will MOST likely assess Desi to determine:

a. the most accurate DSM-IV diagnosis.

b. whether his presenting symptoms of anxiety are due to his history of asthma.

c. the career that would be most appropriate for him to pursue.

d. Desi’s current level of awareness.

16. As Desi’s therapy progresses, Pat will:

a. encourage Desi to actively explore key aspects of his sense of identity.

b. actively explore key aspects of h is sense of identity using projective methods.

c. gather evidence to support his perception of Desi’s sense of identity without disclosing his findings to Desi.

d. disclose aspects of his own sense of identity with the hope that Desi will assimilate them.

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17. Which of the following characteristics of Gestalt therapy contributes to its usefulness with clients from diverse populations?

a. focus on expressiveness

b. focus on understanding the person in the environment and exploration of the client’s awareness

c. the focus on self-disclosure

d. the lack of importance of content

18. This concept refers to a complete loss of self in which the individual cannot separate himself/ herself from the environment:

a.

retroflection

b.

introjection

c.

confluence

d.

projection

19. This defense occurs when a client’s impulse is blunted or dampened (i.e. a person smiles to soften the expression of his/her anger):

a.

deflection

b.

denial

c.

avoidance

d.

acting out

20. The problem with theory testing research in the area of behavioral approaches is that:

a. it is difficult to test the theory separate from outcome.

b. behavioral constructs are hard to operationalize.

c. behavior therapists are bad researchers.

d. a II of the above are true

21. Which one of the following is NOT associated with Behavior Therapy?

a. Skinner

b. Adler

c. Watson

d. Pavlov

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Julie believes that she absolutely MUST be the best mother possible. According to REST, she should instead:

a. sacradize.

b. forget about it.

c. importantize.

d. practice UAO.

2. When an individual experiences an Activating event and processes it with a rational belief, she/he is likely to:

a. not feel any emotion.

b. experience discomfort disturbance.

c. experience ego disturbance.

d. none of the above

3. The REST counselor would be LEAST likely to use the following technique:

a. bi bl iotherapy

b. reframing

c. extensive problem exploration

d. band c

4. Which of the following is most important in REBT?

a.

thoughts

b.

feelings

c.

behavior

d.

motivation

5. The role of the client in REBT is:

a. patient.

b. collaborator.

c. expert on the self.

d. none of the above

6. The role of the counselor in REBT is:

a.

doctor.

b.

teacher.

c.

co-fac i I itator.

d.

submissive.

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7. The best client outcome in REBT involves:

a. changing irrational beliefs.

b. symptom remission.

c. better interpersonal relationships.

d. adopting a new life phi losophy.

8. Which of the following is NOT a level of cognitive processing?

a.

automatic

b.

conscious

c.

u nconsc ious

d.

metacognitive

9. The initial roles of the therapist and client in Cognitive Therapy are MOST like:

a. co-therapists.

b. fellow travelers.

c. doctor-patient.

d. parent-child.

10. Collaborative Empiricism refers to the:

a. client and therapist working together to investigate the client’s presenting problem.

b. warmth and genuineness that the therapist and client demonstrate to each other.

c. therapist’s position as a blank slate in the second phase of treatment.

d. client’s role of a student in the first phase of treatment.

11. In CT, client resistance is seen as stemming from:

a. activated depressogenic schemata.

b. irrational beliefs toward the therapist.

c. therapist bel iefs.

d. problems in collaboration.

12. Arlene, the Cogn itive Therapist, asks her cl ient Sue to take some baby steps towards re-establishing her relationship with her family. Arlene is using:

a. a graded task assignment. b activity scheduling.

c. Socratic questioning.

d. none of the above

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13. Cognitive restructuring occurs via:

a. behavioral techniques used in Cognitive Therapy.

b. cognitive techniques used in Cognitive Therapy.

c. investigation into irrational core beliefs that developed during childhood.

d. both a and b

14. Stephen is in therapy with Bob, and they decide that Stephen should, over the next week, meet one new person every day. When Stephen comes to his next session, he has met only three new people. Bob asks what Stephen will do over the next week to meet seven new people. Bob is MOST likely to be a(n):

a. Gestalt therapist.

b. Interpersonal therapist.

c. Family systems therapist.

d. Reality therapist.

15. According to Reality Therapy, the reason we get depressed is that:

a. we are unhappy.

b. we are unhappy with ourselves.

c. we have unsatisfied needs for fun.

d. we are unhappy with our job.

16. Researchers who have investigated the efficacy of Reality Therapy have generally reported that Real ity Therapy is:

a. as effective as a placebo.

b. generally effective.

c. more effective than Cogn itive Therapy.

d. more effective than treatment with medication.

17. Which of the following is an example of a question that a Reality Therapist is likely to ask a cl ient?

a. “If tonight while you are sleeping, something happened that made everything better, how

would you know?”

b. “What is your earl iest recollection of your mother and father?”

c. “What will happen if you continue doing what you have been doing up until now?”

d. “What has worked for you in the past to solve the problem that you are having right now?”

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18. A common criticism of the findings of Reality Therapy outcome research is that:

a. the findings are not generalizable due to the strict analog research designs that are used.

b. the treatment time is too long.

c. samples are not drawn from diverse populations.

d. it is too simplistic.

19. According to Reality Therapy theory, personality is:

a. the relative strengths of a person’s basic needs.

b. not fully fixed until adulthood.

c. heavily influenced by parental reactions.

d. easily changed.

20. Feminist Therapists believe that sex is determined and gender is determined.

a. socially; biologically

b. biologically; socially

c. environmentally; genetically

d. systematically; randomly

21. Feminist Therapists see dysfunction as resulting primarily from:

a. biological factors.

b. psychological factors.

c. oppressive environmental and social factors.

d. past traumatic experiences.

22. Upon which of the following areas do Feminist Therapists tend to focus on in the counseling process?

a. building a sense of empowerment within the client

b. assertiveness training

c. relational therapy

d. a II of the above are true

23. Shanelle is seeing Betty, the feminist therapist, because she is having panic attacks. In one session, Shanelle talks about her anger because Betty has so much power over her. Betty is likely to:

a. acknowledge the power differential between them.

b. respond empath ically to Shane lie’s anger.

c. see Shanelle’s reaction as transference.

d. assure Shanelle that their relationship is egalitarian.

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Multiple Choice Questions (Enter your answers on the enclosed answer sheet)

1. Clinicians who are concerned with cultural biases that are inherent with theories such as Family Systems Theories tend to criticize FST for:

a. the narrow definition of family.

b. the fact that differentiation is not culturally sensitive, and can sometimes be destructive to families who are not Caucasian middle-class.

c. the distinct heterosexual bias.

d. all of the above

2. Which of the following theorists would most closely match the philosophy of human nature adopted by Virginia Satir?

a. Sigmund Freud

b. Carl Rogers

c. Albert Ellis

d. Aaron Beck

3. Minuchin’s theory of personality development tends to focus on:

a. feedback that the identified patient receives from the other family members.

b. implications of being a member of a triangle within a family.

c. the development of the family rather than each individual within the family.

d. Minuchin does not propose a theory of personality development.

4. When stress levels rise in a family that is of relatively low differentiation, which of the followi ng is likely to be observed?

a. Problems in the couple relationship

b. Dysfunction in a child

c. Dysfunction in one of the partners

d. All of the above are possible

5. The idea that the therapist must know their own family is essential to which of the FSTs?

a. structural

b. strategic

c. satir

d. none of the above

6. The pseudo independent posture is the result of:

a. impression management strategies.

b. high differentiation.

c. low self-esteem.

d. low differentiation.

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Please answer questions 11 – 14 based on the paragraph below:

Jane is a 42 year-old married mother of four children who was recently diagnosed with multiple sclerosis – a neurological disorder that often leads to motor weakness, speech disturbance,

and other cognitive symptoms. She sought counseling from Mark, who is currently involved in

a Solution Focused Training program. As Mark conducted his intake assessment of Jane, he determined that Jane was experiencing symptoms of depression that were particularly related

to her loss of sensation in her feet and lack of coordination. Jane further reported that as her symptoms have progressed, she is aware that when she goes out to run errands or do activities with her children, people generally treat her “differently” than before she became ill.

11. Mark will likely conduct a formal assessment of Jane (e.g., a structured interview, brief measure of intelligence, and paper and pencil personality inventory) for the purpose of:

a. examining how her conditions of worth are related to her current symptoms of depression.

b. investigating the extent that her symptoms of depression are due to her physical illness.

c. determining an accurate DSM-IV diagnosis.

d. Solution Focused Therapists do not use formal assessments.

12. In addition to empathic listening, Mark would most likely:

a. focus on family members’ reactions to Jane’s disease.

b. look for evidence of Jane’s competence and strength.

c. acknowledge that Solution Focused approaches to therapy are only effective for psychological disorders.

d. ask Jane a series of questions about her illness as soon as possible, given the nature of Jane’s problems.

13. Mark asks Jane the question, “If while you were sleeping something happened to make everything better, how would you know that things were better in the morning?” Mark’s question is an example of which of the following Solution Focused Interventions?

a. The person is political

b. Scaling Questions

c. The Miracle Question

d. Fast Forward Questions

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14. Mark spends many sessions gathering further information about Jane and ends up attributing Jane’s depression and hopelessness to a traumatic event that happened during Jane’s

first marriage. Mark presents his conceptualization to his supervisor, who is likely to conclude that:

a. Mark is right on track with his hypotheses and should explore the roots of Jane’s

depression further.

b. Jane has little or no hope to ever feel happy again, due to this traumatic event.

c. Jane would benefit from continued assessment.

d. Mark has become “tangled” in the problem.

15. Which of the following is NOT one of West and Bubenzer’s (2002) three problematic narratives?

a. Ongoing Conflict

b. Not Being Appreciated

c. Continual Lack of Trust

d. Being Used

16. Assessment in a Narrative Therapy model is:

a. seen as a continuous process that is focused on understanding client’s perspectives on

thei r lives.

b. not likely to use formal means.

c. inconsistent with Narrative Therapy philosophy.

d. all of the above

17. I n a Narrative Therapy session, whose language is used?

a. The cl ient’s

b. The counselor’s

c. Both the client’s and counselor’s

d. The other therapists who are observing and helping

18. The Narrative Therapist is seen as atn):

a. expert.

b. consu Itant.

c. master storyteller.

d. none of the above

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19. The major technique used in Narrative Therapy is:

a. visualizing.

b. giving homework.

c. asking questions.

d. band c

20. The Transtheoretical Approach to Psychotherapy:

a. strictly adheres to only one theory.

b. uses the techniques from a theory but ignores the underlying theoretical assumptions.

c. combines the techniques of various theories as long as the aim of the strategy is to help a client progress through the various stages of change.

d. adheres to the underlying theoretical assumptions but disregards the techniques.

21. Which of the following is NOT an element of the Contextual Model that was proposed by Frank & Frank in 1991?

a. the setting connected to a healing mission

b. a match between client and counselor background

c. the rationale that is believed by the client and counselor

d. the ritual that is based on rationale

22. Processes, stages, and levels are three basic dimensions of change that are associated with wh ich of the following theoretical orientations?

a. I nterpersonal Theories

b. Beutler’s Systematic Eclectic Psychotherapy

c. Transtheoretical Therapy

d. Contextual Therapy

23. Which of the following are some of the basic processes that are associated with change according to the Transtheoretical approach to therapy?

a. self-liberation

b. social liberation

c. emotional expression

d. all of the above

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Written Assignment for Unit Four

• Include your name, student number, course number, course title and unit number on each page of your written assignment (this is for your protection in case your materials become separated).

• Begin each written assignment by identifying the question number you are answering followed by the actual question itself (in bold type).

• Use a standard essay format for responses to all questions (i.e. an introduction, middle paragraphs and conclusion).

• Responses must be submitted as a MS Word Document only, typed double-spaced, using a

standard font (i.e. Times New Roman) and 12 point type size.

Word count is NOT one of the criteria that is used in assigning points to written assignments. However, students who are successful in earning the maximum number of points tend to submit written assignments that fall in the following ranges:

Undergraduate courses: 350 – 500 words or 1 – 2 pages. Graduate courses: 500 – 750 words or 2 – 3 pages. Doctoral courses: 750 – 1000 words or 4 – 5 pages.

Plagiarism

All work must be free of any form of plagiarism. Put written answers into your own words. Do not simply cut and paste your answers from the I nternet and do not copy your answers from the textbook. Be sure to refer to the course Syllabus for more details on plagiarism and proper citation styles.

Please answer ONE of the following:

1. Describe the differences between open and closed family systems and give an example of each.

2. Describe Visitors, Complainants, and Customers. Why, according to Solution Focused Therapists, is it not a good thing if your client is a Visitor?

3. Evaluate Narrative Therapy’s utility for clients who are of diverse backgrounds. What are its strengths and drawbacks?

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