for this essay i will be asking you to read one of the articles below and summarize what the three main points are that the author is making

For this essay, I will be asking you to read ONE of the articles below and summarize what the three main points are that the author is making. I also want you to tell me your opinion of what those points is (i.e. do you agree with the author, what is your opinion in this debate, etc.).

Attached is a brief example of what sort of document I am looking for from you. I do realize that this is a history essay—I am asking you to write about more contemporary subjects. Also, while I am asking for 2 pages from you with 0 sources, this essay has 2 pages and 3 resources.

The addresses for the articles are:

  1. Gun Control Debate: to an external site. (Links to an external site.)
  2. Social Security Reform: to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)
  3. Same-Sex Marriage Debate: to an external site. (Links to an external site.)
  4. Abortion Debate: (Links to an external site.)

The Battle of Stamford Bridge

The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place in Yorkshire, England on September 25, 1066. One of the opposing armies was a Viking invasion force led by King Harald Sigurdsson of Norway, nicknamed “Hardrada”, the Ruthless. His intention was to claim the throne of England left empty by the recent death of King Edward the Confessor. The invaders captured York and moved twelve miles beyond the city to Stamford Bridge across the Derwent River. There, they rested before continuing what they expected to be a victory march through England.

Opposing Harald was the Anglo-Saxon army led by the newly crowned King Harold Godwinsson. The Anglo-Saxons had hastily marched from southern England, reaching Yorkshire in just five days. There, they were joined by the local fyrd, which had already faced the Norwegian invaders once before the main army arrived. English fyrds were somewhat inconsistent in terms of training and skill, but the Yorkshire fyrd performed well during this campaign—even earning the respect of Harald Sigurdsson.

When the Anglo-Saxons reached Stamford Bridge, they surprised the Vikings so thoroughly that for a time only one Viking prevented them from crossing the Derwent River to reach the main Norwegian force. The initial English assault on the Viking army was turned back and the Vikings countercharged, led by King Harald in person. Just as the English were about to retreat, Harald was struck in the throat by an arrow and died. The Vikings then retreated to regroup and charged again. This time Tostig, Harold Godwinsson’s brother, led them. Viking reinforcements also arrived, but they were unable to drive the Anglo-Saxons away. At the end of the day, the Vikings withdrew back to Norway in only twenty-four boats. (They had originally arrived in three hundred.)

The Battle of Stamford Bridge marks the last time that a Viking invasion force would do battle in England. The threat of future invasions would persist for years, but that threat would never again materialize. It also saw the death of one of the greatest Viking warriors of his age in Harald Sigurdsson. The age in which the Vikings were feared all across Europe was coming to an end.

Also, the battle permitted a third candidate for the throne of England, William of Normandy to bring his forces across the English Channel without interference since Harold Godwinsson was busy in York. Harold quickly retraced his steps after the Battle of Stamford Bridge in order to confront William. The battle they fought at Hastings, in October 1066, saw the death of Harold and secured the throne of England for William (now called the Conqueror).

Finally, had the Battle of Stamford Bridge turned out differently, England might have remained fragmented and isolated, like Scandinavia, instead of the major player in French history that it turned out to be. Had England remained isolated, the dominant power in European history, France could possibly have remained unchallenged throughout the Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries. This might have meant that North America would have been mostly French instead of English in background, culture, and language. The Battle of Stamford Bridge is possibly more important for what its outcome prevented than for what its outcome allowed.


  1. Hollister, C. Warren. The Making of England, 55 B.C. to 1399, Fourth Edition. D.C. Heath and Company, Lexington, MA, 1983.
  2. Cantor, Norman F. The Civilization of the Middle Ages. Harper Perennial, New York, NY, 1994.
  3. (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site. (Links to an external site.)