How did business owners respond to the growth of unions and the labor movement?
They cut wages and hours.
They appealed to Congressmen to outlaw unions.
They required workers to sign yellow dog contracts or created blacklists.
They planted spies among union members.
They promoted suspected organizers to the management level, thereby negating their union membership
One of the earliest American preservationists was
John D. Rockefeller.
The need for managers in the many new businesses of the late 1800s contributed significantly to the growth of
the middle class.
America’s expanding debt.
“Robber barons” or “captains of industry” were businessmen who
claimed ties to European aristocracies.
had made their riches during the Civil War.
fought bitterly against the expansion of suffrage.
built mafia-like organizations in the nation’s burgeoning cities.
amassed large fortunes between 1865 and 1900 with ruthlessness and ingenuity.
During the Civil War, Congress took advantage of the absence of southerners in the House and Senate to do all of the following, except
develop a national currency.
authorize the construction of land grant universities.
pass several national internal improvement projects.
support scientific training and research.
prohibit child labor.
Pres. Hayes’ authorization of the National Guard to stop the railroad strike of 1877 is evidence of
the rise of an organized labor movement in 19th century America.
increasing worker discontent with low pay and hazardous conditions.
government intervention on behalf of big business in the decades after the Civil War
The Tweed Ring, working out of Tammany Hall, was
a political machine designed to help workers get jobs.
famously run by “Boss William Tweed,” the leader of the dominant Democratic political organization or “machine” in New York City.
a Chicago political machine.
noted for helping the poor and the destitute.
a haven for newly arrived immigrants.
Among the American Federation of Labor’s successes were all of the following except
setting a new standard workday from ten to eight hours.
serving as an umbrella for the many craft unions.
arbitrating disputes to ensure worker solidarity rather than competition between different groups of workers.
becoming the leading labor organizations in the 1880s by appealing to middle class Americans as well as the working class.
The AFL achieved all of these successes.
Although corrupt, New York’s Tammany Hall appealed to
big business looking to boost profits.
recent immigrants and job seekers.
state government seeking a system for granting contracts.
reformers seeking to improve the social landscape.
Congressmen looking to get rich.
Vertical integration meant
buying up all competitors.
breaking up older but less competitive monopolies.
owning all aspects of production and distribution under one corporate organization, from accessing and owning the raw materials, to the production of the good(s), to the delivery of the finished product(s) to the consumer.
creating a business model that would allow for mass production.
buying just enough shares in a publicly traded company so as to control it.