module 08 course project criteria for performance evaluation

For this assignment, use the Production Standard Method to develop the criteria for the performance appraisal that you would utilize for the position Release of Information clerk. Document the criteria you will use to evaluate the employee. This will be for the annual performance evaluation.

Performance Evaluation Importance

The purpose of a performance evaluation is to discuss with the employee how well they have performed on mutually set goals and measures. The performance evaluation can be used for possible promotion, further development of an employee, and the basis for a merit increase of wages. The formal appraisal system is also valuable in considering such criteria as job knowledge, ability to follow through on assignments, judgment, attitude, cooperation, dependability, productivity, and safety. Two-way communication is important because without feedback from an employees and their effect on performance, a manager runs the risk of decreasing an employee’s motivation. Equally important is the subject of what needs improvement or enhancement in their job. Appraising individuals is probably one of the most difficult tasks in a manager’s job. This is because the manager has their idea of what should be accomplished in the job and the employee has another idea. Emotions are involved in this appraisal and it can be tough to do. Especially, if the employee is not meeting the expectations of the job.

Despite the potential threat of being evaluated, performance appraisals can be welcomed by employees. One of the most important aspects of evaluations is that the employee wants to know where they stand with management. Research has shown that employees who receive this personal feedback is connected to job satisfaction. Periodic evaluations provides the employees with feedback. On the other hand, just because the employee receives feedback doesn’t mean that they are always satisfied with the evaluation they receive. Intentionally or not, many unskilled managers turn the appraisal sessions into criticisms of past shortcomings and they do little besides turning the employee into feeling resentment and defensiveness against their employer. By learning more about performance evaluations, a manager can make sure that a performance review meets the needs of both the management staff and the employees.

Performance Evaluation Timeliness

Performance reviews should be a part of regular communication between a manager and employee, the more formal discussion is normally held on a yearly basis. When an employee is hired new to an organization, a review should also be conducted prior to the end of the probationary period. Performance issues are rarely resolved by ignoring them. Understanding a problem and what is causing it and working with an employee is an management task that needs to be taken seriously.

When performance reviews are conducted, the following steps will assist with the process.

  • Prepare for and schedule the appraisals in advance. This will give you time to review the job description, goals that that were set, productivity reports, and any other criteria that is important to the position. Schedule the time in advance so the employee has time to think about their own job performance.
  • Create an environment so the employee is at ease. Many people become emotional during this interview so set the employee at ease and comfortable during the meeting. This will make them receptive to constructive feedback.
  • Describe the purpose of the appraisal to the employee. Explain to the employee what the appraisal will be used for. Explain if the appraisal will be used for a salary increase or if it will be used for other personnel decisions.
  • Include the employee in the appraisal decision including a self-appraisal. The appraisal should not be a one way communication meeting. The manager should not do all the talking and the employee should have ample opportunity to discuss their performance and raise questions about what the manager has said and present their own data and perceptions about the work they perform. A good way to have the employee talk during this interview is to have them complete a self evaluation and present that to the manager. This will present an environment of participation.
  • Focus discussion on work behaviors not on the employee. Keep the discussion on the behaviors you have observed and not attacking the employee. This will become too emotional.
  • Support your evaluation with specific examples. Specific performance behaviors help to clarify the issues you raise. Rather than stating something is not good, you should be as specific as possible in your explanation.
  • Give both negative and positive feedback. Positive as well as negative feedback gives an employee a better understanding of their performance.
  • Improving employment relationship. The meeting should aid in improving supervisor-subordinate relationship and give employees a sense of participation in the job. Ideally, the employee should leave the meeting feeling better about themselves and the organization.
  • Ensure employees understand what was discussed in the appraisal. Ask the employee too summarize what was discussed at the meeting. This will make sure you have gotten your information through to employees
  • Generate a development plan. Write a development plan on what should be done and by when and what the manager will do to assist in the improvement plan.
  • Setting goals for the future. One result of every performance appraisal interview should be a clear idea of how both the manager and the employee will behave in the future. The goal should focus on the most important aspect of the job. Changing 20% of a worker’s behavior will usually solve 80% of the problem. A time period needs to be established for each goal as well.

Performance Appraisal Methods

There are different types of performance evaluation methods and this is usually determined by the Human Resource department of the organization. The Human Resource Department also has the responsibility of setting the dates when the evaluations need to be completed. The manager of the employees in the department has the responsibility of conducting the written review and conducting the meeting with the employee.

Goal Setting or Management by Objectives

This is a useful method to support the organization’s or department goal setting process. MBO (management by objective) to the appraisal process is that the employees tend to support goals if they agree the goals are acceptable and if they expect to be successful in the efforts. It has been proven to be a powerful motivator. The following steps are typical of a MBO process:

  • Establishing clear precise objectives for the work expected
  • Develop an action plan how these objectives are to be achieved
  • Allowing the employee to implement the plan
  • Appraising the performance on the objectives met
  • Taking corrective action when necessary
  • Establishing new objectives when necessary

The objective must be written so they are measureable such as a percentage or number. The objective should also be challenging but realistic so they can be met. They need to be in writing and clear and understandable by the employee.

Production Standards

The production standard method involves setting a standard or an expected level of output and then comparing each employee’s performance to the standard. One of the advantages to this type of performance evaluation is it is based on highly objective factors. A disadvantage is a lack of comparability of standards for different jobs.

Essay Appraisal

The essay appraisal method requires the manager to describe an employees performance in a written evaluation form where the manager needs to describe strengths and weaknesses, quantity and quality and ability to get along with other employee’s This appraisal is all dependent on the manager and can be very subjective. The writing ability of the manager can vary and this can make an average employee look better if the skill is effective.

Critical-Incident Appraisal

The critical-incident appraisal method requires the manager to keep a written record of incidents, as they occur, that involve job behaviors that illustrate both satisfactory and unsatisfactory performance of the employee being rated. Over time, the incidents will be used to provide a basis for performance reviews and providing feedback to the employee. The main criticism of this method is it requires to the manager to be a note taker on all incidents and requires a definition or interpretation on what is important.

Graphic Rating Scale

With the graphic rating scale, the manager assesses an employee on factors such as quantity of work, dependability, job knowledge, attendance, accuracy of work, and cooperativeness. Graphic rating scales include both numerical ranges and written descriptions. Some weaknesses to this system include mangers rate employees differently due to their own personal experience, background, and personality. Another problem is the manager can select categories to rate that influence job performance.


The checklist method is where a manger answers yes or no to a list of questions about job behaviors. Normally, the human resource department has the questions weighed so the manager does not know what the weights are and HR assigns a score at the end. This checklist is time consuming for the manager to use as they need to assemble the questions and they can have a different perspective of questions for each job task.

Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)

The BARS method is designed to assess behaviors required to successfully perform a job. The focus of BARS is not on performance outcomes but on functional behaviors demonstrated on the job. The assumption is that these functional behaviors result in effective performance on the job. To understand the use and development of BARS, job dimensions (duties and responsibilities) must be evaluated and have scales designated for each one. Anchors (written statement of behavior) when exhibited on the job, indicate the level of performance on the scale. Rating performance using BARS requires the manager to read the list of anchors on each scale to find the group of anchors that best describes the employee’s job behavior during the period being reviewed. The advantage of using this system is the employee and the manager work on the scale together so normally it is accepted. Also the anchors are developed from the observation and experiences of employees who actually perform the job. One major drawback to this method is it takes time and commitment to develop the job dimensions and anchors.

Forced-Choice Rating

The forced-choice rating method has several variations, but the most common practice requires the manager to rank a set of statements describing how an employee carries out the duties and responsibilities of a job. The statements are normally weighed and the weights are not known by the manager. After the manager ranks all the forced-choice statements, the human resource department applies the weights and computes a score. This method attempts to eliminate bias by forcing the manager to rank statements are unrelated. On the other hand, the forced-choice rating system can be difficult to communicate to employees and some managers feel they are not being trusted to give a good rating to their employees.

Peer Appraisal

A peer appraisal is used when the work is done in a team setting or when more than one person shares the same duties. The employees are used as appraisers for each other. They can provide valuable information about their colleagues because of daily interactions. They can report on how employees interact with peers, subordinates, and the supervisor. The disadvantage of this process is friendships form at work and the review may not be objective and they feel they are reporting on their friends.

Self Appraisal

The self rating is when an employee reviews themselves and provides a supplemental source of information. There are several advantages to self-ratings and tend to be more critical than those done by supervisors. They also tend to show the supervisor how the employee perceives the responsibilities of their job and helps identify the differences of opinion. They are particularly useful for those employees that work remotely. The disadvantage is when the employee has an inflated opinion of what they have accomplished and it differs from the supervisor. The supervisor can also learn about issues they were unaware of. Many organizations give the employee an option of completing a self appraisal along with a production standard appraisal so a comprehensive evaluation can be done.

For all purposes, in most organizations the appraisals are done by the immediate supervisor. However, there are times that a multiple use of other methods can be done so the appraisals is more comprehensive.

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