PHI 210 Critical Thinking WEEK 11 EXAM

Cliff wants to determine whether people prefer red apples or green apples. In order to obtain good results, he decides to conduct this survey at a car festival. Out of the 5000 people who attended the festival, Cliff surveys 10 attendees randomly. The survey reads, “Which do you prefer, red apples or green apples?” Seven of ten people surveyed answer that they prefer red apples. From his survey, Cliff concludes that most people prefer red apples. Cliff’s results may not be reliable because of which of the following problems with his study?

Question 2

While sitting in a parking lot after work, Brandon witnesses someone step around a garbage bag on the ground. This leads Brandon to question people’s reaction to litter. If Brandon were to conduct an investigation, which part of the investigation will he have already completed?

Question 3

While scientific explanations provide compelling evidence for claims and produce verifiable insights, they are also _________.

Question 4

Conspiracy theories often lack which of the following?

Question 5

A student is designing an experiment to find out if the following statement is true: “If you get at least six hours of sleep, you will do better in class than if you get fewer than six hours of sleep.” The statement is an example of which of the following?

Question 6

Angela and Glenn are deciding if they should get married. Their biggest point of contention by far is over money. Angela believes strongly that the right way to handle family finances is to save as much as possible for the future. Glenn, however, has no problem spending freely, using credit cards, and borrowing for lifestyle. As Angela is considering whether or not to marry Glenn, which of the following questions would help her to evaluate the problem of finances?

Question 7

A good practice when making a decision involves which of the following?

Question 8

Dharamdas is looking to buy a new laptop since his old laptop has finally stopped working. He has made a list of all the laptop brands that could potentially fit his needs, and now he is reading reviews and narrowing down his list based on what he learns. Which stage in the problem-solving process is Dharamdas practicing?

Question 9

Clinton graduated college with a bachelor’s degree in mathematics. While in school he turned down the option to stay an extra year and earn a master’s degree in engineering. Currently, Clinton is having a difficult time finding employment as a mathematician, while all of his engineering friends easily found jobs. What question is Clinton likely asking himself when reflecting upon his decision to not get the master’s degree, which has made it more difficult for him to find a job?

Question 10

After weeks of touring different places to live, Maria signs the lease for an apartment in a new city. Three weeks later, she notices there is a severe ant problem in the apartment and she decides that next time she is apartment-hunting, she’ll ask the landlord about any potential insect problems before she signs her lease. Which stage in the problem-solving process is Maria practicing?

Question 11

Why might advertisers find it appealing to promise that they have a “better” product than the competition?

Question 12

To Albert, the word “love” brings up positive feelings about his son; to Raj, it brings up negative feelings about a previous relationship; and to Anthony, it refers to the warm feeling he gets during family gatherings. Which category of meaning are these statements describing?

Question 13

A reader analyzes the four categories of meaning in order to do what?

Question 14

“Acknowledging a right to benefit from the presence of animals requires government action to ensure human access to animals in a number of different spheres,” writes Jessica Pierce, Ph.D., in Psychology Today. The pragmatic meaning of the term “right” in this statement is _________.

Question 15

Which statement best describes the relationship between intent and form?

Question 16

A state senator testifies under oath not to accept a large campaign contribution. The prosecutor argues the senator lied under oath, so the senator should go to jail. What is the enthymeme in the prosecutor’s argument?

Question 17

Consider the following argument: Premise 1: Steven played a video game with heavy gun use. Premise 2: Simulating shooting guns at people is wrong. Conclusion: Therefore, Steven should not be playing the video game. The statement, “Steven should not be playing the video game,” is an example of which of the following?

Question 18

Which of the following is the BEST example of an amoral claim?

Question 19

Every day on his way to work, Frederic stops by a large chain hotel at which he is not staying, walks into the lobby, and helps himself to the continental breakfast. He believes this is the right thing to do because it saves him a lot of money and is very convenient. What ethical theory is he using to justify his actions?

Question 20

A top official of the government is presenting a case for the continued use of drone airplanes in military conflicts. The official states that “using drones during military surveillance missions is the right course of action because it saves soldiers’ lives.” What is the enthymeme in the official’s argument?

Question 21

An expert may not be considered a credible source if he or she has _________.

Question 22

The false dichotomy fallacy is a fallacy in which the arguer _________.

Question 23

Which of the following is an example of a “loaded question”?

Question 24

Annie argues that reducing carbon emissions in the United States will take a toll on the economy far exceeding any potential environmental benefits. Leo responds by arguing that several Scandinavian countries produce less carbon than the United States. What fallacy is Leo committing?

Question 25

When the topic at hand is a complicated scientific issue, it is important to _________.