Why did Friedrich Engels and Karl Marx believe capitalism should be eliminated?
• Question 2
Why were Timothy O’Sullivan’s and Alexander Gardener’s photographs of the Gettysburg battlefield so disturbing?
• Question 3
In Katsushika Hokusai’s The Great Wave, what does the distant Mount Fuji represent?
• Question 4
How did the East India Company recoup the money it spent buying Chinese products for import?
• Question 5
By how much did Haussmann’s plan increase land dedicated to public parks in Paris?
• Question 6
Why did the Parisian workers revolt in June 1848?
• Question 7
Why did the United States outlaw Chinese immigration in 1882 with the Chinese Exclusion Act?
• Question 8
On what values was nationalism based?
• Question 9
Why did Haussmann’s redesign cause the working class to move outside the city?
• Question 10
Why did the Japanese nishiki-e calendar painters have to disguise the symbols for months in their works?
• Question 11
Why did Charles Baudelaire speak so disparagingly of George Sand?
• Question 12
Why in part did Manet’s Le Déjeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) disturb its viewers?
• Question 13
In Rigoletto, how does Giuseppe Verdi show his characters’ contrasting emotions?
• Question 14
Why did the Jockey Club demand that French opera have a second-act ballet?
• Question 15
Why did Wagner design the orchestra to be underneath the stage of the Bayreuth Festspielhaus?
• Question 16
How did Verdi have to change his operas so they would be produced in Paris?
• Question 17
Who is the first person to call himself an “anarchist”?
• Question 18
For what was Charles Baudelaire’s poetry criticized?
• Question 19
How did George Sand challenge sexual stereotypes?
• Question 20
What does the black cat at the end of Olympia’s bed symbolize?
• Question 21
Why was Degas attracted to the soft effects of pastel chalks?
• Question 22
Why did nineteenth-century Russian collectors favor French and German works over Russian art?
• Question 23
Why are the young girls in Degas’s Dance Class in a moment of great stress?
• Question 24
How did William Morris and Company discriminate against women?
• Question 25
How did Tchaikovsky raise ballet music to a new level?
• Question 26
Why did the 13 Russian artists known as the Travelers show their paintings across the country instead of in an urban gallery?
• Question 27
As stated in the chapter’s “Continuity and Change” section, why were nineteenth-century Americans so attracted to French culture?
• Question 28
Why did Camille Pissaro paint Red Roofs with the complementary colors red and green and orange and blue set side by side?
• Question 29
Why can Renoir’s Luncheon of the Boating Party be viewed as a response to Émile Zola’s challenge for the Impressionists to create more complex paintings?
• Question 30
In Berthe Morisot’s Summer’s Day, why is one woman’s dress with zigzags while the other is a patchwork of straight strokes?
• Question 31
How did Jane McCrea become a symbol of Native American and white relations?
• Question 32
According to architect Louis H. Sullivan, what determined a building’s identity?
• Question 33
Why did suffragette Lillie Devereux Blake declare the Statue of Liberty to be an oxymoron?
• Question 34
Why was ragtime music poorly received by many Americans?
• Question 35
Why did the Lakota and the Kiowa tribes keep a “winter count”?
• Question 36
Why did John Ruskin criticize James Whistler’s Impressionistic Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket?
• Question 37
Which earlier artist seems to have influenced Eakins in The Gross Clinic and The Agnew Clinic?
• Question 38
In The Life Line, how does Winslow Homer present the female?
• Question 39
What was the title of the preparatory sketch for George Bellows’ Cliff Dwellers?
• Question 40
Why did the U.S. Congress select Chicago to host the 1893 Columbian Exposition?