John is a 19-year-old college football player who presents with sneezing, itchy eyes, and nasal congestion that worsens at night. He states that he has a history of asthma, eczema and allergies to pollen. There is also one other person on the football team that has similar symptoms. His vitals are BP 110/70, P 84, R 18, T 100 F.
Write a differential of at least three (3) possible items from the most likely to less likely. For each disease include information about the epidemiology, pathophysiology and briefly argue why this disease fits the presentation and why it might not fit the presentation.
A patient has been admitted into the emergency room that was in the passenger side of a car that collided with another car head on. The patient is pale, barely conscious and has a weak and thready pulse. An IV is started. The vitals are BP 80/50, P 140, T 96.0 and R 26. As the team fights to keep the patient alive they have to remove the spleen. Blood is given but it has been mistyped. A transfusion reaction occurs.
Describe the type of hypersensitivity reaction that has occurred and discuss the molecular pathophysiology of the specific type of hypersensitive reaction you have chosen.
In the event that this patient survived the car accident and the transfusion reaction which organs are most likely to be damaged and why?
A 44-year-old patient presents with lump in the chest of approximately 2 cm in diameter. There is a slight dimple over the location of the lump and when the lump is manipulated it seems to be attached to the surrounding tissue. A lumpectomy is performed and the mass is sent to pathology. The pathology report comes back and the mass is confirmed to be an estrogen receptor negative, a progesterone receptor negative and a her2/neu receptor positive breast cancer.
• What are some of the risk factors for breast cancer?
• What tumor suppressor genes are associated with breast cancer?
• What tumor oncogenes are associated with breast cancer?
• Compare and contrast tumor suppressor genes from oncogenes?
1. Which statement about vaccines is true? (Points : 2)
2. Which statement is true about fungal infections? (Points : 2)
3. What is the role of reverse transcriptase in HIV infection? (Points : 2)
4. What of the following remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide? (Points : 2)
5. Once they have penetrated the first line of defense, which microorganisms do neutrophils actively attack, engulf, and destroy by phagocytosis? (Points : 2)
6. After sexual transmission of HIV, a person can be infected yet seronegative for _____ months. (Points : 2)
7. Deficiencies in which element can produce depression of both B- and T-cell function? (Points : 2)
8. Hypersensitivity is best defined as a(n) (Points : 2)
9. A person with type O blood is likely to have high titers of anti-___ antibodies. (Points : 2)
10. What mechanism occurs in Raynaud phenomenon that classifies it as a type III hypersensitivity reaction? (Points : 2)
11. During an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction, what causes bronchospasm? (Points : 2)
12. In a type II hypersensitivity reaction, when soluble antigens from infectious agents enter circulation, tissue damage is a result of (Points : 2)
13. In which primary immune deficiency is there a partial to complete absence of T-cell immunity? (Points : 2)
14. Which cytokines initiate the production of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)? (Points : 2)
15. What effect does estrogen have on lymphocytes? (Points : 2)
16. Which hormone increases the formation of glucose from amino
17. During a stress response, increased anxiety, vigilance, and arousal is prompted by (Points : 2)
18. Which cytokine is involved in producing cachexia syndrome? (Points : 2)
19. Which of the viruses below are oncogenic DNA viruses? (Points : 2)
20. By what process does the ras gene convert from a proto-oncogene to an oncogene? (Points : 2)
21. What is the role of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-) in cell metastasis? (Points : 2)
22. Many cancers create a mutation of ras. What is ras? (Points : 2)
23. In chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a piece of chromosome 9 fuses to a piece of chromosome 22. This is an example of which mutation of normal genes to oncogenes? (Points : 2)
24. Tobacco smoking is associated with cancers of all of the following except (Points : 2)