a. Josquin des Préz
b. Raphael Sanzio
d. Marsilio Ficino
61) Machiavelli wrote in The Prince that a “prince must not keep faith when by
doing so it would be against his self-interest.” What would a ruler following
this precept most likely do?
a. ruthlessly betray his friends to remain in power
b. carefully weigh the common good against his personal ambitions
c. consult his priest before making important decisions
d. recognize the inherent rights of citizens to life and liberty15 Final Examination
64) Which of these was an important factor in the Low Countries’ “commercial
a. King Henry VIII’s split with the Catholic church
b. the invention of linear and atmospheric perspective
c. destruction of churches and religious art during peasant revolts
d. accumulation of wealth in the hands of a merchant class
65) One would likely hear the term madrigal in a discussion of what topic?
a. music in Renaissance England
b. the Lutheran Bible
c. Palestrina’s harmonies
d. Palladio’s classical designs
66) What northern Renaissance writer’s greatest work is devoted to a satirical exposure of religious corruption and prejudice?
a. Pico della Mirandola
c. Thomas More
d. Desiderius Erasmus
67) What northern Renaissance humanist writer expressed his philosophical skepticism in the form of personal essays?
a. Michel de Montaigne
b. William Shakespeare
c. Thomas More
d. Desiderius Erasmus
68) Which is the best example of the vivid and precise realism of Northern Renaissance painting?
a. Van Eyck’s Marriage of Arnolfini
b. Tintoretto’s Last Supper
c. Parmigianino’s Madonna of the Long Neck
d. Bruegel’s The Hunters’ Return
69) The Teatro Olimpico illustrates the influence of what Renaissance technique, borrowed from painting?
a. blank verse
c. linear perspective
d. commedia dell’arte
70) In carrying the technique of chiaroscuro (dramatic light and shadow) to the cities of Florence and Naples, Artemisia Gentileschi spread the influence of what artist?
a. Nicolas Poussin
b. Gianlorenzo Bernini
d. Johannes Vermeer
71) In what regard is Velazquez’s masterpiece The Maids of Honor (Las Meni- ñas), a scene in the artist’s royal studio, most remarkable?
a. its complex arrangement of space
b. a brilliant use of red, blue, and gold
c. its mood of gaiety and self-indulgence
d. the novel treatment of a religious theme
72) What would the Academy, as established under the rule of Louis XIV, most likely do?
a. ensure a religious content in pictures
b. oversee the Dutch market in paintings
c. encourage innovative styles of painting
d. impose absolutist neoclassical rules on artists
73) Which statement best describes the works of Molière?
a. attracted a diverse audience to public theaters
b. essential in the popularization of modern science
c. showed the clear influence of Shakespeare
d. developed under the patronage of Louis XIV
74) What best describes the cantatas of J. S. Bach?
a. marked the origin of baroque opera in Germany
b. adopted the musical form of concerto grosso
c. served as an important part of Lutheran church worship
d. were usually performed in the courts of German nobles
75) Which of these figures is associated with the heliocentric theory of the universe, an important advance in the Scientific Revolution?
a. René Descartes
b. John Locke
c. Nicolaus Copernicus
d. Antonio Vivaldi
76) Who created romanticized portraits that he called “fancy pictures” that appealed to the wealthy classes of eighteenth-century Britain?
a. William Hogarth
b. Thomas Gainsborough
c. Balthasar Neumann
d. Antoine Watteau
77) Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s novel titled Émile would today be most influential
in what field of study?
a. the nature of religious experience
b. the philosophy of education
c. the philosophical basis of modern science
d. the economic study of free markets
78) Which of these works might have been most influenced by Palladio’s book of classical designs, an important document in eighteenth-century neoclassicism?
a. Boffrand’s Hôtel de Soubise
b. Haydn’s London symphonies
c. Noverre’s ballet d’action
d. Jefferson’s Monticello
79) Which of these would one expect to hear in the sonata allegro movement of a Classical symphony?
a. the development
b. Storm and Stress
c. a recitative
d. the libretto
80) Which movement or style aimed to free Germany from artificial imitations of French culture?
b. the sentimental drama
c. the Encyclopedists
d. cult of sensibilité
81) How did Ludwig van Beethoven substantially alter the Classical symphony form of Haydn and Mozart?
a. used the motif to expand and unify the symphony structure
b. emphasized the classical simplicity of his mentors’ style
c. eliminated the symphony’s fourth movement
d. selectively reduced the number of instruments in the orchestra
82) Which of these works celebrated the romantic belief in political freedom and
a. J. M. W. Turner’s Slave Ship
b. Delacroix’s Liberty Leading the People
c. Bierstadt’s Among the Sierra Nevada
d. Friedrich’s Wanderer Above the Mists
83) For what reason would Turner’s The Slave Ship have been criticized by tradi-
tional art critics?
a. depicted mythological creatures and fantastic scenes
b. depicted a commonplace scene from ordinary life
c. disregarded precise detail in favor of atmospheric color and light
d. incorporated classical sculpture and architecture
84) In what kind of work would one most likely expect to encounter the tech-
nique of the idée fixe?
a. a building by A. N. Pugin
b. a drama by Goethe
c. a symphony by Hector Berlioz
d. a painting by Francisco Goya
85) Which of these was famed as a virtuoso pianist and composer of romantic
nocturnes and preludes?
a. Frédéric Chopin
b. William Blake
c. Robert Schumann
d. Hector Berlioz
86) What statement best expresses the utilitarian philosophy of J. S. Mill?
a. the strong must be free to create their own value system
b. all ideas come from God and deserve to be heard
c. actions are right insofar as they promote happiness
d. all species, including humans, are engaged in the struggle to survive
87) What made Joseph Paxton’s Crystal Palace notable?
a. Art Nouveau-style decoration
b. Gothic gloominess and mystery
c. iron-and-glass construction
d. use of neoclassical motifs
88) The literary names of Gustave Flaubert and Henrik Ibsen are closely associated with what “-ism”?
89) Why would the artistic public of the 1860s most likely have rejected Edouard Manet’s Luncheon on the Grass?
a. the work seemed to call for violent uprisings of urban workers
b. the work’s sketchy brush strokes seemed amateurish
c. the work depicted exotic tropical scenes in garish colors
d. the picture placed a bold nude woman in a contemporary setting
90) What pair of painters best defines the pure impressionist style of brilliant color and vibrant brushwork?
a. Paul Cézanne and Georges Seurat
b. Gustave Courbet and Honoré Daumier
c. Claude Monet and Pierre-Auguste Renoir
d. Edouard Manet and Edgar Degas
91) What work is associated with Die Brücke, a movement of German expressionist artists of the 1920s?
a. Kafka’s The Metamorphosis
b. Nolde’s Dance Around the Golden Calf
c. Picasso’s Three Musicians
d. Copland’s Appalachian Spring
92) ”Roped together like two mountain-climbers,” as one said, what two artists invented the analytic and synthetic methods of cubist painting?
a. Marcel Duchamp and Henri Matisse
b. Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso
c. Salvador Dali and Joan Miró
d. Paul Klee and Walter Gropius
93) Which statement best describes Duke Ellington?
a. author of the jazz-influenced work Threepenny Opera
b. strongly influenced by the atonal methods of Schoenberg
c. successfully collaborated with Sergei Diaghilev
d. composed his works principally for jazz ensembles
94) Who fashioned a system of teaching modern dance that made it as rigorous
as classical ballet?
a. Martha Graham
b. Willa Cather
c. Georgia O’Keeffe
d. Isadora Duncan
95) Which statement best describes the architect Frank Lloyd Wright?
a. believed a building should connect its occupants and surroundings
b. was a central figure of the Bauhaus movement in Germany
c. was the inventor of architectural modernism in the U.S.
d. envisioned “radiant cities” of skyscrapers and super-highways
96) Which term is best associated with the international political situation of the 1950s, in the aftermath of World War II and the defeat of fascism?
b. Cold War
c. global terror
d. the Great Depression
97) Which statement best describes the work of Anne Sexton and Sylvia Plath?
a. was strongly influenced by the Beatles and other groups of 1960s rock- and-roll
b. composed poetry in a “confessional” vein, with graphic images of female
c. wrote self-consciously metaphysical stories about labyrinthine fictional
d. dealt principally with African-American characters and social life
98) Which structure best illustrates the architectural principles of the International Style–glass-and-steel towers of unadorned purity?
a. Michael Graves’ Portland Public Services Building
b. Mies van der Rohe and Philip Johnson’s Seagram Building
c. Frank Gehry’s Guggenheim Museum Bilbao
d. Charles Moore’s Piazza d’Italia
99) The fiction of Gabriel García Márquez, notably his novel One Hundred Years
of Solitude, is best described by which term?
d. magic realism
100) What best describes Judy Chicago’s most famous work, the Dinner Party?
a. a cycle of dramas depicting African-American characters and social life
b. a set of intensely personal poems about her experience as mother and housewife
c. a controversial art installation commemorating women heroes