Section 4 Study Guide
1. What is the most commonly used illicit drug among persons aged 12 and older? A. cocaine B. alcohol C. heroin D. methamphetamine E. marijuana
2. The highest rates of illicit drug use occur among adults aged A. 16 to 17. B. 18 to 20. C. 21 to 25. D. 26 to 29.
3. Which of the following is NOT a reason people take drugs? A. to improve nutrition B. to relieve pain C. to fit in D. to cope with stress
4. Which region of the U.S. tends to see the highest rates of illicit drug use, based on results from a 2010 survey? A. Northeast B. South C. Midwest D. West
5. Which of the following statements is true regarding nonmedical drug use in the United States by individuals aged 12 or older? A. More than 47 percent have used an illicit drug in their lifetime. B. About 70 percent have tried illicit drugs other than marijuana. C. About 3 percent are current users of illicit drugs. D. Less than 5 million people have used prescription-type drugs illicitly.
6. Which of the following identifies a drug or drugs? A. aspirin B. nicotine, aspirin, and caffeine C. nicotine D. nicotine and caffeine E. caffeine
7. Which of the following is a term used to refer to a substance that causes changes in brain chemistry and alters consciousness, perception, mood, and thought? A. substance B. psychoactive drug C. drug of abuse D. pharmaceutical drug
8. Compared to other routes of administration, ________ is the most complicated way for a drug to enter the bloodstream. A. transdermal absorption B. subcutaneous injection C. intravenous injection D. oral consumption E. inhalation
9. Which of the following statements about the effects of drugs on the brain is FALSE? A. Eventually, a drug addict is not able to experience pleasure from anything—not even the drug being abused. B. Addictive drugs activate the pleasure and reward circuit. C. The parts of the brain involved in rational thought are not affected. D. Drugs that bind to endorphin receptors reduce pain.
10. Paco has come to depend on heroin to be able to function normally. A few weeks ago, he attempted to cut himself off, but he experienced severe diarrhea. Paco’s case illustrates which of the following concepts? A. drug overdose B. withdrawal symptom C. drug tolerance D. psychological dependence
11. Most drugs are taken A. by injection. B. orally. C. through the nose. D. by applying a patch to the skin.
12. Which of the following routes of drug administration represents the fastest way for a drug to reach the brain? A. intravenous injection B. oral C. through the nose D. by applying a patch to the skin
13. One indicator of physiological dependence is the development of A. acne. B. stomach pain. C. tolerance. D. sleep apnea.
14. Probably the most popular psychoactive drug is A. nicotine. B. caffeine. C. marijuana. D. alcohol. E. Rohypnol.
15. Which of the following is a central nervous system stimulant? A. LSD B. OxyContin C. caffeine D. barbiturates
16. Which of the following is a central nervous system depressant? A. Xanax B. heroin C. amphetamines D. Ritalin
17. Which drugs have effects similar to the response evoked during the fight-or-flight reaction? A. stimulants B. depressants C. opiates D. inhalants E. anabolic steroids
18. Amphetamines fall under which category of drugs? A. stimulants B. depressants C. opiates D. inhalants E. hallucinogens
19. Which of the following statements is true about cocaine? A. Cocaine hydrochloride powder produces a higher rate of dependence than crack cocaine. B. Cocaine is a powerful central nervous system opiate. C. Cocaine may cause users to become overweight. D. Cocaine’s effects appear almost immediately after a single dose and disappear within a few minutes or hours.
20. Which drug provides individuals a heightened sense of empathy and closeness to those around them? A. morphine B. methamphetamine C. MDMA (Ecstasy) D. LSD
21. Common date rape drugs include which of the following? A. MDMA B. Valium C. Rohypnol D. opium
22. Which of the following associations is NOT correct? A. amphetamines—narcolepsy B. methamphetamine—ADHD C. opioids—pain D. benzodiazepines—anxiety
23. Which type of drug can be obtained from common household products and causes widespread and long-lasting brain damage in chronic users? A. depressants B. inhalants C. barbiturates D. amphetamines
24. Which of the following drugs was used during the Civil War and became known as “the soldier’s disease”? A. heroin B. cocaine C. morphine D. marijuana
25. Which of the following statements is true regarding opioids? A. Opium originated in Europe. B. Opium has a long history of medical use for the treatment of diarrhea and dehydration. C. The opioid heroin is a less potent drug developed from morphine. D. Opioids are nonaddictive.
26. Pain reduction is most associated with which type of drug? A. benzodiazepines B. amphetamines C. opioids D. hallucinogens
27. Which type of drug has no role in health care? A. opiates B. hallucinogens C. inhalants D. stimulants E. depressants
28. Phencyclidine, commonly known as PCP, is which type of drug? A. anabolic steroid B. stimulant C. inhalant D. hallucinogen E. opiate
29. Which of the following is a hallucinogen? A. OxyContin B. LSD C. Viagra D. Valium
30. Which of the following is a possible long-term effect of marijuana? A. decreased reaction time B. increased sexual pleasure C. development of chronic bronchitis D. addiction and dependence
31. Most of the $193 billion annually drained from the U.S. economy by drug use is spent on A. research. B. health care and justice system costs. C. border control. D. treatment programs.
32. Which of the following is a demand reduction strategy in the war on drugs? A. preventing distribution B. spraying heroin fields C. interdiction D. treatment programs
33. Which of the following is NOT considered a harm reduction strategy? A. needle exchange program B. incarceration C. controlled availability D. medicalization
34. The most effective approaches to drug abuse prevention on college campuses include all of the following strategies EXCEPT A. engaging parents. B. engaging the media. C. providing alternative activities. D. intervening with at-risk-students.
35. More than 47 percent of people aged 12 or older have used an illicit drug during their lifetime. True False
36. Abuse of prescription pain relievers by college students increased by 343 percent between 1993 and 2005. True False
37. Abuse of prescription stimulants such as Ritalin and Adderall by college students actually decreased between 1993 and 2005. True False
38. Illicit drug use is more prevalent in rural counties than in urbanized counties. True False
39. Most individuals who abuse prescription drugs get them from a friend or relative for free. True False
40. The federal government, at this time, does not regulate the use of herbal remedies. True False
41. The route of administration may have a profound effect on the speed and efficiency with which a drug acts. True False
42. If a person’s biochemical state is already altered by another drug, the effect of a drug can be changed. True False
43. Neuroscientists have found that many addictive drugs, such as cocaine, marijuana, opioids, alcohol, and nicotine, affect a pleasure and reward circuit lying deep inside the brain. True False
44. Recovery from a drug addiction is a matter of willpower to abstain from using the substance. True False
45. Multiple areas of a person’s life, including the social, emotional, and psychological aspects, must be addressed before recovery from a drug addiction can occur. True False
46. Following continued use of amphetamines, users’ attempts to stop may cause them to sleep for 24 hours, be depressed for days, and/or have thoughts of death. True False
47. Side effects of GHB, a common date-rape drug, may include hyperactivity, increased heart rate, raised blood pressure, and amnesia. True False
48. Regardless of the negative possibilities, benzodiazepines are an important part of treatment for those struggling with anxiety disorders. True False
49. There is no evidence that heroin results in any long-term damage to the body. True False
50. Hallucinogens produce intensification and distortion of visual and auditory perception. True False
51. LSD is easily recognizable by its smell and taste. True False
52. LSD does not produce compulsive drug-seeking behaviors, and physiological withdrawal symptoms do not occur when use is stopped. True False
53. Individuals who use large quantities of marijuana may experience problems with memory, learning, distorted perception, loss of coordination, difficulty in problem solving, and increased heart rate. True False
54. Marijuana smoke contains more carcinogens than does tobacco smoke. True False
55. Among drug use prevention strategies, the primary prevention programs most closely target the subgroups that are at greatest risk for use or abuse. True False
56. More than half of the people in prison are dependent on or abusers of alcohol/drugs. True False
57. Treatment is a more effective strategy for reducing drug use than locking up dealers or cutting off supplies at our borders. True False
58. Harm reduction strategies are based on the same set of assumptions as supply and demand reduction strategies in the war on drugs. True False
59. Most experts agree that drug treatment is a one-time, short-term process that rarely leads to relapse. True False
60. One drink is defined by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism as ______ ounce(s) of alcohol. A. 1.0 B. 0.5 C. 1.5 D. 2.0
61. Which of the following statements is true about ethnic differences in alcohol use? A. Whites are more likely to abstain from alcohol use than African Americans. B. Hispanic men and Hispanic women have similar alcohol consumption rates. C. Alcohol consumption is higher among Asian Americans than among White Americans. D. Socioeconomic and environmental factors influence ethnic differences in alcohol use.
62. Which population group tends to drink very little or abstain from alcohol because of a biological reaction to alcohol? A. Asian Americans B. African Americans C. Native Americans D. Hispanic Americans E. Latino Americans
63. All of the following factors speed the absorption of alcohol, EXCEPT A. alcohol concentration in the drink. B. carbonation. C. anger. D. nicotine.
64. All of the following slow down the absorption of alcohol into the bloodstream, EXCEPT A. food. B. water. C. stress. D. smoking.
65. You drank far too much last night, and as a result this morning you feel like you have a bad case of the flu. The best way to cope with your hangover is to A. eat a large meal. B. drink small quantities of alcohol. C. take a painkiller and rest until you feel better. D. engage in an activity that increases your heart rate.
66. Travis passed out on the floor after a drinking contest, and now you can’t wake him. The best thing you can do for him is A. call 911. B. carry him to a bed. C. roll him onto his side. D. cover him with a warm blanket.
67. Which of the following is true of alcohol-induced cirrhosis? A. Its effects can be reversed by about 30 days’ abstinence from drinking. B. It can occur without symptoms in some people. C. It begins at the moment a person takes his or her first drink. D. It usually takes about 10 years of steady, heavy drinking for cirrhosis to develop.
68. Alcohol use is a factor in about ________ of suicides in the United States. A. one-eighth B. one-third C. two-thirds D. three-quarters
69. One practice that has substantially increased compliance with drunk driving laws is A. tax increases. B. server liability laws. C. sobriety checkpoints. D. raising the legal drinking age.
70. The smoking rate for adults in the United States has leveled off at approximately ______ percent. A. 8 B. 13 C. 20 D. 41 E. 54
71. Which of the following statements about tobacco is true? A. Tobacco use among college students is declining. B. Tobacco smoke contains dozens of cancer-causing substances. C. The higher one’s educational achievements, the more likely one is to smoke. D. Cigarettes account for about 50 percent of the tobacco sold in the United States.
72. Which of the following substances in tobacco smoke is most closely associated with oxygen deprivation to the heart? A. hydrogen cyanide B. nitrous oxide C. carbon monoxide D. nicotine E. tar
73. Which of the following is true of cigar smoking? A. Most cigar smokers inhale the smoke. B. Cigars present a rather low cancer risk. C. Cigars contain more nicotine than cigarettes. D. Cigar smoke is less harmful than cigarette smoke.
74. Key reinforcers of nicotine addiction to cigarettes include all of the following EXCEPT A. nicotine’s ability to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. B. a reduction in feelings of anxiety and depression. C. increased dopamine levels in the brain. D. relief from cold and flu symptoms.
75. Which of the following statements about the short-term effects of smoking on the body is true? A. Nicotine stimulates the production of urine. B. The effects of nicotine peak in about two minutes. C. Nicotine reaches the brain in about 60 seconds. D. Nicotine causes constriction of blood vessels.
76. Approximately ______ percent of lung cancer deaths are caused by smoking. A. 32 B. 49 C. 66 D. 87
77. Which of the following statements is true about smoking cessation? A. Mucous production is among the last things to change following smoking cessation. B. Quitting after age 70 has little effect on health or longevity. C. Blood circulation decreases in most people after they quit smoking. D. The risk of smoking-related heart attack can fall by half within a year.
78. The average number of attempts required for successful smoking cessation is A. two. B. seven. C. eleven. D. sixteen.
79. About 65 percent of American adults drink, at least occasionally. True False
80. College binge drinkers are more likely to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence 10 years after college. True False
81. The majority of alcohol that enters the body is absorbed into the stomach. True False
82. A 150-pound person with more lean body tissue will have a lower blood alcohol concentration (BAC) than a 150-pound person with high body fat who drinks the same amount of alcohol. True False
83. It usually takes at least ten years of steady, heavy drinking to develop cirrhosis. True False
84. Long-term alcohol abuse is associated with an overall decline in intellect. True False
85. Alcohol drinking has been shown to be a factor in about one-third of suicides. True False
86. Every day, an additional 4,000 teenagers under age 18 light up their first cigarette. True False
87. One in three Americans smokes. True False
88. Smoking is more common among African Americans than among any other ethnic group. True False
89. In the brain, nicotine stimulates the release of endorphins. True False
90. Cigars have more tobacco and nicotine per unit than do cigarettes. True False
91. Individuals who stop smoking typically lose between 7 and 10 pounds until they adjust to not having nicotine in their system. True False
92. Smoking is the largest single preventable cause of illness and premature death in North America. True False
93. Smoking delays menopause by approximately five years. True False
94. Smoking reduces the effectiveness of some medications, particularly anti-anxiety drugs and penicillin. True False
95. Individuals who quit smoking before age 50 cut their risk of dying within the next 15 years in half. True False