We’ve discussed the Toulmin outline and how it can be used to analyze arguments. However, it can also help in creating arguments by allowing a writer to develop an organization that allows that writer to see the patterns in the information being synthesized.
CLAIM: Everyone should pick up their dogs’ droppings
WARRANT: (do you really need to say this?) Even dog owners should be considerate of their fellow citizens and other dogs.
REASON: Lots of dogs live in cities and towns
DATA: Number of dogs in United States (source)
Number of dogs live in cities and towns (source)
REASON: Dog droppings can cause health hazards for other dogs.
DATA: Dogs eat feces
DATA: Feces contain diseases that other dogs can eat and contract (source)
DATA: Tapeworms and other parasites can be contracted by eating feces (source)
REASON: Dog droppings can be dangerous to people.
DATA: Kids can play with droppings, not wash their hands
DATA: People can slip on fresh leavings.
REASON: People take pride in their surroundings
DATA: Homeowners don’t like feces in their yards
DATA: City dwellers see enough garbage. Dog owners don’t need to add to it.
REASON: If you’re found out, you be penalized.
DATA: Several cities fine you if you don’t pick up after your dog (Specific cities and fines. Don’t forget sources.)
DATA: Neighbors can sue.
COUNTERARGUMENT: Picking up droppings is hard work for the squeamish.
REBUTTAL: We humans do lots of unsavory things, including excretions and we clean up after ourselves and dependent parties.
COUNTERARGUMENT: Feces is biodegradable—the plastic bags used to throw out feces are not.
REBUTTAL: There are bridgeable bags for droppings for the ecologically careful.
Now, I want you to read another article. It’s in modern English. Create the Toulmin outline for the article and have it ready for class next session.